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Unit 6 AP Human Geography
Vocab: Developmement and Industrialization
Terms in this set (48)
the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful
Agricultural labor force
The number of people who work in agriculture. This is important because a large value indicates that the country is likely an LDC dependent on agriculture, while a small value indicates that there are fewer people working in agriculture, meaning that the agriculture is more efficient.
As a percentage of daily requirement is an important index of development. People in MDCs generally consume more than 130% of their daily requirements, but most people in LDCs barely get enough to sustain themselves. The problem is worst in Africa, where most people do not eat enough.
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
An indicator of development. MDCs tend to consume much more energy per capita than do LDCs. This will be important in the future because as LDCs begin to industrialize, there will be a great strain on the world's energy supply
Foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy
Gross National Product - the sum of all goods and services produced in a nation in a year
Human Development Index, measure of quality of life using factors like life expectancy, literacy, access to clean water, income, etc.
rich people work in the cities, but live in the suburbs. their taxes go to the suburbs, while poorer people in the city have to pay for the city taxes.
Physical quality of life index
An attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is the average of three statistics: basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age one.
Purchasing power parity
a measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
Rostow, W. W.
economist, developed the "Stages of Growth" model in the late 1950s
- Important because he developed the model that is frequently referred to.
"Stages of Growth" Model
Stage I -> the "initiation" stage, marked by "hands off" user awareness and an emphasis on functional applications to reduce costs.
Stage II -> the "contagion" stage, a proliferation of applications as well as the potential for more problems to arise.
Stage III -> a need for "control" arises, centralized controls are put in place and a shift occurs from management of computers to management of data resources.
Stage IV -> "integration" of diverse technological solutions evolves, management of data allows development without increasing IT expenditures in Stage V.
Stage VI -> "maturity", high control is exercised by using all the information from the previous stages.
The communication of specific plans, designs, or educational programs necessary for the use of new technologies from one society or class to another. (p. 358)
World systems theory
Wallersteins theory of the core, semi periphery, periphery, and external areas. The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy. Semi perihpery was the buffer between the core and periphery. Periphery are states that lack strong central gov'ts or are controlled by other states. External areas are states that mainteained their own economic system and for the mosr part, remianed outside of the capitalist world economy
the development of industries for the machine production of goods
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
U.S. companies are the largest single producer with plants in 35 states producing about $39.1 billion in products and exports. U.S. supply is comprised of three sources, primary, imports and recycled
- Important because it is a large industry that is important in transportation, packaging and building and construction.
Canadian industrial heartland
Canada has a sizable manufacturing sector, centred in Central Canada, with the automobile industry especially important.
The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
a form of tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areas
a port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties, a port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties
Export processing zone
Areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries.
Industry that locate in a wide variety of places without a significant change in its cost of transportation, land, labor, and capital.
Four Tigers (NIC's)
newly industrialized countries, South Korea (largest), Taiwan (moving towards high tech), Singapore (Center for information and technology), Hong Kong(Break of Bulk Point): Because of their booming economies.
the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems
"Just in Time" delivery
Method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed.
Agriculture and industry locate their activities as close to their market as possible to provide the least cost of transportation for the goods they produce.
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico.
a philosophy that assumes that a sale does not depend on an aggressive sales force but rather on a customer's decision to purchase a product; it is synonymous with the marketing concept
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs
An economy with less emphasis on heavy industry and manufacturing and more emphasis on services and technology
tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources (Ex. coal industry)
Special economic zones (China)
these include the Pudong District, Xiamen, Shantou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and the Hainan Province (all of these are coastal areas providing vital economic advantages for the country of China)
Specialized economic zones
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment. SEZ's or Special
Principle that maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
appearing to be present in large numbers or in many different places
German economist who developed in 1909 a theory for the location of industries that focused on transportation, labor, and agglomeration as factors of production affecting the optimal (least cost) industrial location.
an industry that manufactures a large-sized product from small-sized raw materials
Weight losing industry
an industry that manufactures a small-sized product from large-sized raw materials
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