Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Bio 105 Chapter 42 Terms
Terms in this set (57)
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a condition caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in which the body's T-helper cells are reduced, leaving the victim subject to opportunistic diseases.
An overreaction of the immune system to amounts of an antigen that do not affect most people; often involves IgE antibodies.
One of the myriad proteins produced by the immune system that specifically binds to a foreign substance in blood or other tissue fluids and initiates its removal from the body.
Any substance that stimulates the production of an antibody or antibodies in the body of a vertebrate.
The specific region of an antigen that is recognized and bound by a specific antibody. Also called an epitope.
An immune response by an organism to its own molecules or cells.
A type of lymphocyte involved in the humoral immune response of vertebrates. Upon recognizing an antigenic determinant, a B cell develops into a plasma cell, which secretes an antibody. (Contrast with T cell.)
The liquid portion of blood, in which blood cells and other particulates are suspended.
cellular immune response
Immune system response mediated by T cells and directed against parasites, fungi, intracellular viruses, and foreign tissues (grafts). (Contrast with humoral immune response.)
class I MHC molecules
Cell surface proteins that participate in the cellular immune response directed against virus-infected cells.
class II MHC molecules
Cell surface proteins that participate in the cell-cell interactions (of T-helper cells, macrophages, and B cells) of the humoral immune response.
The process whereby a plasma cell changes the class of immunoglobulin that it synthesizes by changing the DNA region coding for the C segment.
Inactivation or destruction of lymphocyte clones that would produce immune reactions against the animal's own body.
Mechanism by which exposure to antigen results in the activation of selected T- or B-cell clones, resulting in an immune response.
A group of eleven proteins that play a role in some reactions of the immune system. The complement proteins are not immunoglobulins.
The portion of an immunoglobulin molecule whose amino acid composition determines its class and does not vary among immunoglobulins in that class. (Contrast with variable region.)
A regulatory protein made by immune system cells that affects other target cells in the immune system.
cytotoxic T cells (TC)
Cells of the cellular immune system that recognize and directly eliminate virus-infected cells. (Contrast with T-helper cells.)
A type of protein made by phagocytes that kills bacteria and enveloped viruses by insertion into their plasma membranes.
An increased immune reaction against an antigen that does not appear for 1-2 days after exposure. (Contrast with immediate hypersensitivity.)
A cell responsible for the effector phase of the immune response.
A substance released by damaged tissue, or by mast cells in response to allergens. Histamine increases vascular permeability, leading to edema (swelling).
Human immunodeficiency virus, the retrovirus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
humoral immune response
The response of the immune system mediated by B cells that produces circulating antibodies active against extracellular bacterial and viral infections. (Contrast with cellular immune response.)
A cell produced by the fusion of an antibody-producing cell with a myeloma (tumor) cell; it produces monoclonal antibodies.
A rapid, extensive overreaction of the immune system against an allergen, resuting in the release of large amounts of histamine. (Contrast with delayed hypersensitivity.)
A class of proteins containing a tetramer consisting of four polypeptide chains—two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains—held together by disulfide bonds; active as receptors and effectors in the immune system.
The capacity to more rapidly and massively respond to a second exposure to an antigen than occurred on first exposure.
A nonspecific defense against pathogens; characterized by redness, swelling, pain, and increased temperature.
A glycoprotein produced by virus-infected animal cells; increases the resistance of neighboring cells to the virus.
A specialized structure in the vessels of the lymphatic system. Lymph nodes contain lymphocytes,which encounter and respond to foreign cells and molecules in the lymph as it passes through the vessels.
A fluid derived from blood and other tissues that accumulates in intercellular spaces throughout the body and is returned to the blood by the lymphatic system.
One of the two major classes of white blood cells; includes T cells, B cells, and other cell types important in the immune system.
An enzyme in saliva, tears, and nasal secretions that hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls.
Phagocyte that engulfs pathogens by endocytosis.
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
A complex of linked genes, with multiple alleles, that control a number of cell surface antigens that identify self and can lead to graft rejection.
Cells, typically found in connective tissue, that release histamine in response to tissue damage.
Long-lived lymphocytes produced by exposure to antigen. They persist in the body and are able to mount a rapid response to subsequent exposures to the antigen.
Antibody produced in the laboratory from a clone of hybridoma cells, each of which produces the same specific antibody.
natural killer cell
A type of lymphocyte that attacks virus-infected cells and some tumor cells as well as antibody-labeled target cells.
Immunologic responses directed against any invading agent without reacting to apecific antigens.
Microorganisms that normally live and reproduce on or in the body without causing disease, and which form a nonspecific defense against pathogens by competing with them for space and nutrients.
An organism that causes disease.
One of two major classes of white blood cells; one of the nonspecific defenses of animals; ingests invading microorganisms by phagocytosis.
An antibody-secreting cell that develops from a B cell; the effector cell of the humoral immune system.
primary immune response
The first response of the immune system to an antigen, involving recognition by lymphocytes and the production of effector cells and memory cells. (Contrast with secondary immune response.)
Any one of a group of specialized lipids with hormone-like functions. It is not clear that they act at any considerable distance from the site of their production.
regulatory T cells (Treg)
Class of T cells that mediates tolerance to self antigens.
secondary immune response
A rapid and intense response to a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen, initiated by memory cells. (Contrast with primary immune response.)
Defensive reactions of the vertebrate immune system that are based on the reaction of an antibody to a specific antigen. (Contrast with nonspecific defenses.)
A type of lymphocyte involved in the cellular immune response. The final stages of its development occur in the thymus gland. (Contrast with B cell; see also cytotoxic T cell, T-helper cell.)
T cell receptor
A protein on the surface of a T cell that recognizes the antigenic determinant for which the cell is specific.
T-helper cell (TH)
Type of T cell that stimulates events in both the cellular and humoral immune responses by binding to the antigen on an antigen-presenting cell; target of the HIV-I virus, the agent of AIDS. (Contrast with cytotoxic T cells.)
tumor necrosis factor
A family of cytokines (growth factors) that causes cell death and is involved in inflammation.
Injection of virus or bacteria or their proteins into the body, to induce immunization. The injected material is usually attenuated (weakened) before injection.
The portion of an immunoglobulin molecule or T-cell receptor that includes the antigen-binding site and is responsible for its specificity. (Contrast with constant region.)
white blood cells
Cells in the blood plasma that play defensive roles in the immune system. Also called leukocytes.
Sets found in the same folder
Bio 105 Chapter 16 Terms
Bio 105 Chapter 19 Terms
Bio 105 Chapter 2 Terms
Bio 105 Chapter 44 Terms
Sets with similar terms
chapter 31 vocab bio
AP Bio Ch 43 Vocab
Mastering Biology Ch. 43 The Immune System
Other sets by this creator
Rancho Los Amigos Scale of Cognitive Functioning
Dressing Developmental Sequence
Allens Cognitive Levels
Reflexes Onset & Integration
Other Quizlet sets
World Geography Vocabulary One
MICROBIO Test 3 Ch. 14