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Actions of the nervous and endocrine system

Endocrine systems act through chemicals clled hormones, the effect is generalized and long term

Chemical Classes of hormones

Hormones are either protein or Chemical

Protein Hormones

most are protein derivatives - the receptors are located on the cell membrane

Sex hormones and those from adrenal cortex are steriods

the receptors are located within the cytoplasm of the cell -

Link between endocrine and nervous systems


Regulations of Hormones

regulated by a negative feedback, some hormones are secreted in response to other hormones, secretion is by direct nerve stimulation

Pituitary Gland / Anterior Lobes

GH, TSH, FSH, ACTH, LH, Prolactin


Growth Hormone - promotes protein synthesis which result in growth


Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, stimulates the activity the thyroid gland


Follicle Stimulating Hormone, a gonadotropin that stimulated the development of ova in the ovaries and sperm in the testes. Also stimulated the production of estrogen in the female


Andrenocoricotropic hormone, stilulated activity of adrenal cortex, secretion of cortisol


Lutenizing Hormome, another gonadotropin causes ovulation and secretion of progesterone and estrogen in females . In males it stimulates the production of testosterone


promotes the development of glandular tissues in the breast and stimulates the production of milk

Posterior Lobes

Oxytocin, ADH


causes uterine muscle contraction and ejection of milk


Antiduretic Hormone, promoted reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules

Thyroid Gland

T4, T3, Calcitonin

T4, T3

affect the metabolism of carbohydrates proteins and lipids (T4 Stronger)


reduces calcium levels in the blood

Parathyroid Gland

PTH, Parathyroid Hormone

Parathyroid Hormome

antagonistic to calcitonin, increases blood calcium levels

Adrenal Gland ( Suprarenal0

all hormones from the adrenal cortex are steroids and are regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving the hypothalamus and ACTH from teh anterior pituitary

Adrenal Medulla

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Epinephrine / Norepinphrine

prepare body for strenuous activity and stress. effect similar to that of sympathetic but can last 10 times longer


Glucagon, Insulin, Gylcogen


rasies blood glucose levels


antagonistic to glucagon, decreases blood glucose levels


stored glucose


produce the male sex hormones which are collectively called androgens - principal androgen is testosterone development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics


estrogen and progesterone


responsible fore development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics


maintains the uterine lining for pregnance

Pineal Gland



regulates circadian rhythms

Thymus Gland



promotes the maturation of T-Cells in the immune system

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