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Chapter 10 -Endocrine

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Actions of the nervous and endocrine system
Endocrine systems act through chemicals clled hormones, the effect is generalized and long term
Chemical Classes of hormones
Hormones are either protein or Chemical
Protein Hormones
most are protein derivatives - the receptors are located on the cell membrane
Sex hormones and those from adrenal cortex are steriods
the receptors are located within the cytoplasm of the cell -
Link between endocrine and nervous systems
hyppthamalus
Regulations of Hormones
regulated by a negative feedback, some hormones are secreted in response to other hormones, secretion is by direct nerve stimulation
Pituitary Gland / Anterior Lobes
GH, TSH, FSH, ACTH, LH, Prolactin
GH
Growth Hormone - promotes protein synthesis which result in growth
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, stimulates the activity the thyroid gland
FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone, a gonadotropin that stimulated the development of ova in the ovaries and sperm in the testes. Also stimulated the production of estrogen in the female
ACTH
Andrenocoricotropic hormone, stilulated activity of adrenal cortex, secretion of cortisol
LH
Lutenizing Hormome, another gonadotropin causes ovulation and secretion of progesterone and estrogen in females . In males it stimulates the production of testosterone
Prolactin
promotes the development of glandular tissues in the breast and stimulates the production of milk
Posterior Lobes
Oxytocin, ADH
Oxytocin
causes uterine muscle contraction and ejection of milk
ADH
Antiduretic Hormone, promoted reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules
Thyroid Gland
T4, T3, Calcitonin
T4, T3
affect the metabolism of carbohydrates proteins and lipids (T4 Stronger)
Calcitonin
reduces calcium levels in the blood
Parathyroid Gland
PTH, Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid Hormome
antagonistic to calcitonin, increases blood calcium levels
Adrenal Gland ( Suprarenal0
all hormones from the adrenal cortex are steroids and are regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving the hypothalamus and ACTH from teh anterior pituitary
Adrenal Medulla
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Epinephrine / Norepinphrine
prepare body for strenuous activity and stress. effect similar to that of sympathetic but can last 10 times longer
Pancreas
Glucagon, Insulin, Gylcogen
Glucagon
rasies blood glucose levels
insulin
antagonistic to glucagon, decreases blood glucose levels
Gylcogen
stored glucose
Testes
produce the male sex hormones which are collectively called androgens - principal androgen is testosterone development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
Ovaries
estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen
responsible fore development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
Progesterone
maintains the uterine lining for pregnance
Pineal Gland
Melatonin
Melatonin
regulates circadian rhythms
Thymus Gland
Thymosin
Thymosin
promotes the maturation of T-Cells in the immune system