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25 terms

Microbio ch 5 pt 2

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Do microbes that use molecular oxygen (aerobes) produce more or less energy from nutrients than microbes that do not use oxygen (anaerobes)?
Aerobes = MORE energy
Obligate aerobes
Cluster only at top
Facultative anaerobes
Cluster at top, but spread throughout
Obligate anaerobes
Cluster only at bottom
Aerotolerant anaerobes
spread throughout
Microaerophiles
Cluster only in middle
Final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration
An inorganic substance other than oxygen such as nitrate ion, sulfate, carbonate.
Anaerobic respiration
Only part of Krebs cycle operates under anaerobic conditions. Not all carriers in the electron transport chain participate in anaerobic respiration. ATP yield is never as high as in aerobic respiration. Anaerobes tend to grow more slowly than aerobes.,
Fermentation
Any metabolic process that releases energy from a sugar or other organic molecule, does not require oxygen or an electron transport system, and uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor. Produces only small amounts of ATP.
Fermentation produces how many molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose?
2
What are two common fermentation end products?
Lactic acid and ethanol.
Polysaccharide biosynthesis
Microorganisms synthesize sugars and polysaccharides. For example, glucose can be synthesized and used to make glycogen. This process costs ATP, but glycogen can be a stored form of energy for later use.
Lipid biosynthesis
Cells synthesize fats by joining glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is derived from an intermediate formed during glycolysis. Fatty acids are derived from acetyl CoA.
Amino acid and protein biosynthesis
E. coli contains the enzymes necessary to use starting materials, such as glucose and inorganic salts, for the synthesis of all the amino acids they need. Many precursors for amino acids synthesis come from the Krebs cycle.
Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis
The 5-carbon sugars of nucleotides are derived from either the pentose phosphate pathway or the Enter-Doudoroff pathway.
The integration of metabolism
Anabolic and catabolic reactions are joined through a group of common intermediates.
Chemoheterotrophs
Organisms that use organic molecules as a source of carbon energy.
Chemoautotraph
Organisms that use an inorganic chemical as an energy source an CO2 as a carbon source.
The Krebs Cycle
A series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid.
The enzyme-regulated energy-requiring reactions are mostly involved in
anabolism
How many molecules of ATP can be generated from the 3 phases in the respiration of glucose?
38
The energy from catabolic reactions is used to produce
ATP
In aerobic respiration, what is the fate of the pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis?
It is oxidized in the Krebs cycle
Fatty acids are catabolized in
the Krebs cycle
In lipid catabolism, glycerol is converted into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and catabolized via
glycolysis