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Do microbes that use molecular oxygen (aerobes) produce more or less energy from nutrients than microbes that do not use oxygen (anaerobes)?

Aerobes = MORE energy

Obligate aerobes

Cluster only at top

Facultative anaerobes

Cluster at top, but spread throughout

Obligate anaerobes

Cluster only at bottom

Aerotolerant anaerobes

spread throughout


Cluster only in middle

Final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration

An inorganic substance other than oxygen such as nitrate ion, sulfate, carbonate.

Anaerobic respiration

Only part of Krebs cycle operates under anaerobic conditions. Not all carriers in the electron transport chain participate in anaerobic respiration. ATP yield is never as high as in aerobic respiration. Anaerobes tend to grow more slowly than aerobes.,


Any metabolic process that releases energy from a sugar or other organic molecule, does not require oxygen or an electron transport system, and uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor. Produces only small amounts of ATP.

Fermentation produces how many molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose?


What are two common fermentation end products?

Lactic acid and ethanol.

Polysaccharide biosynthesis

Microorganisms synthesize sugars and polysaccharides. For example, glucose can be synthesized and used to make glycogen. This process costs ATP, but glycogen can be a stored form of energy for later use.

Lipid biosynthesis

Cells synthesize fats by joining glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is derived from an intermediate formed during glycolysis. Fatty acids are derived from acetyl CoA.

Amino acid and protein biosynthesis

E. coli contains the enzymes necessary to use starting materials, such as glucose and inorganic salts, for the synthesis of all the amino acids they need. Many precursors for amino acids synthesis come from the Krebs cycle.

Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis

The 5-carbon sugars of nucleotides are derived from either the pentose phosphate pathway or the Enter-Doudoroff pathway.

The integration of metabolism

Anabolic and catabolic reactions are joined through a group of common intermediates.


Organisms that use organic molecules as a source of carbon energy.


Organisms that use an inorganic chemical as an energy source an CO2 as a carbon source.

The Krebs Cycle

A series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid.

The enzyme-regulated energy-requiring reactions are mostly involved in


How many molecules of ATP can be generated from the 3 phases in the respiration of glucose?


The energy from catabolic reactions is used to produce


In aerobic respiration, what is the fate of the pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis?

It is oxidized in the Krebs cycle

Fatty acids are catabolized in

the Krebs cycle

In lipid catabolism, glycerol is converted into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and catabolized via


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