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Terms in this set (33)
makes electron attraction stronger as # of protons increases. as a result; electrons are pulled in more tightly, making the atom smaller
energy levels of electrons that when added, creates more repulsion increasing size down a group because of the more energy levels in the atom
what happens to the atomic radius when you move across a period and down a group?
period- atomic radius decreases
down a group- increases
why does the atomic radius decrease across a period?
b/c the more positive charge creates a stronger electron/proton attraction, resulting in the electrons being pulled in- making the atom smaller
Why does it increase down a group?
b/c the inner energy level electrons push away valance electrons, making it bigger. (shielding)
what charge does a cation have? what does a cation do?
positive; loses electrons to become more stable like noble gasses
what charge does an anion have? what does it do?
negative charge; gains electrons to become more stable like noble gasses
are anions smaller or larger than their neutral ion? why?
always larger, because of the less proton/electron attraction. making it larger- also because of shielding. the more negative it gets= bigger
are cations smaller or larger than their neutral ion? why?
b/c there is a stronger proton/electron attraction- resulting in electrons being pulled towards the nucleus. the more positive it gets= smaller
what is ionization energy?
the amount of energy that it takes to get an atom to give up the outermost electron. weak attraction= low ionization energy
what happens when you go down a group? why?
ionization energy decreases because there is more shielding and energy levels, which reduces amount of energy
what happens to the amount of energy as you go across a period? why?
it increases because it's harder to remove an electron from the atom because of the increased nuclear "pull"
what are the exceptions to the energy?
group IIIA takes less energy than IIA, because the IIA sub level is full. and VIA takes less than VA because VA is half filled- making it difficult to remove electrons because they are already stable
what is electron affinity?
an atoms tendency to gain an electron
what happens to electron affinity as you move across a period? why?
it increases because of increased pull
what happens when you move down a group?
electron affinity decreases because the electrons are shielded from the pull of the nucleus
what are exceptions of electron affinity?
2A; Nitrogen groups and the noble gasses
what does electronegativity measure?
when a bond is already formed, it measures how strong a bond is
what happens when you go across a period? why?
what happens when you go down a Group? why?
decreases because of shielding b/c of less attraction
how do metals react?
by losing electrons
how does low ionization affect a metal's ability to react?
it makes it easier to react
what happens to the reactivity of metals as you go across a period?
it increases across (follows ease of losing an electron)
what happens to the reactivity of metals as you go down a group?
increases to the right on the Period and up in the column (excludes noble gasses)
what happens to the reactivity of non metals across a period? down a group?
increases across and down a group
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