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1.) Professionalism
2.) Dignity
3.) Discrimination
4.) Equipment
5.) Assessing
6.) Not the Radiologist
7.) Radiation Protection
8.) Ethical / Right to Quality Care
9.) Privacy / Confidentiality
10.) Education

Patient Bill of Rights

1.) Considerate Care
2.) Informed
3.) Autonomy
4.) Advance Directive
5.) Privacy
6.) Confidentiality / Public Health
7.) View Records
8.) Hospital's Response / Patient Request
9.) Business Relationships
10.) Research Studies
11.) Continuity of Care
12.) Hospital Policies

Four Sources of Law



Enforced by federal, state and local legislators.


Issued and enforced by an administrative body.


Resolution of similar or identical legal disputes.

Common Law aka Case Law

It is formulated as an outgrowth of English Common Law.


The root of law in the United States?

Respondent Superior

Who is held for an employee's negligent act?

Personal Liability

What do you call the responsibility of each person for his or her actions?

Tort of Outrage

The subsequently causing of patient emotional distress.

Res Ispa Loquitur

The doctrine that states that the negligent act is obvious or the act speaks for itself.

Tort Law

It is the wrongful act committed against a person or property.

Corporate Responsibility

Who is responsible for fulfilling direct duties to patient?

Civil Law

What law is non-criminal?

Unintentional and Intentional

What are the two types of tort?

Unintentional Tort

The type of tort that includes negligent acts and acts of malpractice.

Intentional Tort

The type of tort that requires a willful action.

Tort Law

The most common type of civil law against health care professionals?


The act of knowing the outcome will be negative and is premeditated is called?

Quasi-Intentional Tort

The tort which has no intent to injure or induce distress to the patient but the act was voluntary is called?

Criminal, Civil and Protection for the Radiographer

What are the three liabilities for the radiographer?

Felonies and Misdemeanors

Crimes are subdivided into what two categories?

Plaintiff or Petitioner

What do you call the individual who files a suit for civil law?

Duty, Breach of Duty and Causation and Damage

What are three valid malpractice claims?

Institutional and Personal

What two types of liability protection are there?


What is the injurious or unprofessional treatment to a patient in medicine?


The discipline on dealing of what is good and bad.


Principles refer to what is right and wrong in behavior.


What is the ethical theory that excludes consequences when making moral decisions or performing moral acts. Also known as the "good will" or the non-consequentialism.

Prima Facie

Options must be weighed according to the duties that would be fulfilled by performing or not performing each option.

Categories of Duties for Prima Facie

-Fidelity (Faithfulness)
-Beneficence (Doing good.)
-Self Improvement
-Malfeasance (Doing harm.)


It is the act or action that should be the consequences when deciding what course of action should be taken to solve an ethical problem. It is also known as consequentialism.

Bioethics aka Medical Ethics

This addresses the ethical problems in the medical practice and healthcare. Developed in the 1960's. It is the most morally desirable course of action in the face of conflicting value choices associated with the practice of medicine.

Microethics and Macroethics

The two forms based on healthcare distribution.


It is the relationship between the patient and physician.


It is the decisions based on higher level of authority. It includes the Congress, State Legislature, Private Foundations, Insurance Companies and Healthcare Organizations.


The act of causing fear to another person in the sense of him or her being touched in an offensive, insulting or physically injurious manner.


This is the act of actual harmful or unwarranted and without consent contact with another person. The simple touch with out any kind of permission is already considered this act.

Four Ethical Problems

-Ethical Dilemma
-Ethical Dilemmas of Justice
-Ethical Distress
-Locus of Authority Issues

Ethical Dilemma

One of the ethical problems that has more than one ethical course of action.

Ethical Dilemmas of Justice

One of the ethical problems that includes problems with distribution benefits and burdens on a societal basis.

Ethical Distress

It is the correct solution but institutional constraints prohibit for being applied.

Locus of Authority Issues

Questions arise to who is responsible or the authority when something fails or happens.


The act of telling the truth.


It is the person's right to decide for his/her own life or choose their own care.

Dowd Model

This addresses ethical problem solving as it relates those in the medical "imaging" profession. It consists of six steps.

HIPAA, 1996

The Public Law 104-191. Internal Revenue Code 1986.**

April 14, 2003

The compliance date for the HIPAA Privacy rule for all hospitals.


It gives the healthcare professional the right to touch and treat a patient.

Simple and Informed

What are the two types of consent?

Simple Consent

The type of consent in which the patient verbally or by action gives consent.

Informed Consent

The type of consent in which the patients may agree to medical intervention or refuse it based on information provided by a healthcare professional.

Criminal Act and Criminal Intention

What are the two elements you need to be convicted of a crime?

Hippocrates 460-375 BC

He's a Greek physician who was credited for writing the Hippocratic oath.

Code of Hammurabi 1727 BC

It was formulated in Babylonia. It was the early attempt to regulate medicine for the protection of the patient.

Pythagoras 580-500 BC

He was credited for developing one of the earliest known moral philosophies.

Plato 428-348 BC

He presented the theory that if people act morally, they are happy, and people generally desire happiness. He provided the basis for thought on the influence of morality on human behavior.

Francis Bacon 1561-1626 BC

He divided medicine into three areas: preservation of health, cure of disease and prolongation of life.

Saint Thomas Aquinas 1224 - 1274

He provided an ethical theory based on religion.

Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727

He applied scientific principles to problem solving which led to scientific rather than moral focus in medicine.

David Hume 1711-1776

He contributed to redirecting ethical theory toward the creation of community associations, the promotion of public health, and the development of national goals to benefit the masses.

Immanuel Kant 1724-1804

He developed deontology which is one of the most common traditional ethical theories.

John Stuart Mill 1806-1873

He developed utilitarianism, a type of teleology, which is the other most common traditional ethical theory.

W. D. Ross 20th Century

He developed rules governing professional behavior based on professional duties. (Prima Facie)

John Rawls 20th Century

He derived a set of principles that provided equal liberty for all while addressing needs of the less fortunate.


It is the following of a specified course toward superiority means and keeping current trends.


The core beliefs that are considered desirable.

Science, Culture, Religion and Experience.

What are the four main sources in which values are derived from?


It is either the positive or negative bearing on how we perceive law.


It is a set of values or customary beliefs.


It influences values on exposure to practices. It also influences the most out of the four main sources of values. It varies from household to household.


It provides structure to personal value system.

Technological Advances
Market and Economic Forces
Statutory and Regulatory Mandates

Professional practices changes because of what factors?

Scope of Practice
Clinical Performance
Quality Performance
Professional Performance
Advisory Opinion

What are the five standards?


The scope of practice deals with what specifically?

Scope of Practice

It deals with your job and mostly what you need to do.

Clinical Performance

It is the clinical setting hence the actual job.
Between the technician and the patient.

Quality Performance

To test the quality of work, if it is up to par.
Between the technician and the equipment.

Professional Performance

It is the act of meeting the standards.
Between the technician and himself.

Act and Rule

These are the two categories of Deontology.

Egoism and Utilitiarianism

The two categories of Teleology.

Social Security Number
Date of Birth
Lab Reports

Types of Confidential Information.

Statutory Mandate
Written Consent
Judicial Mandate

Only situations where confidential information may be shared.

Non-Confidential Information

Common knowledge or considered public knowledge.
Anything under the FOIA.

Express and Implied

These are the two types of simple consent.

Mature Minors
Competent Adult
Legal Guardian
Individual Obligated by Court Order

Type of persons who can issue or give informed consent.


Refraining from self-promotion, avoiding conflicts of interest and resisting economic peer pressure.


Feeling concerned or interest for.

Freedom of Information Act

What does FOIA stand for?

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