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153 terms

Counseling Theories

Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Ch. 6, 8-9
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According to Rollo May therapy should be aimed at...
helping people discover meaning of their lives rather than problem solving
Existential therapy is more of a way of...
thinking rather than style of practicing psychotherapy
Existentialism states we are...
free & responsible
A basic premise of Existentialism...
we are not victims of our circumstances
Yalom says 1st step is for the client to...
accept responsibility in creating their predicatment & only they have the power to change it
Existentialism basic task is to...
encourage client to explore options for creating meaningful exisence
Existentialism
which theory was not founded by any particular person or group
Existentialism
grew to help resolve life dilemmas like isolation, alientaion, & meaninglessness
Logotherapy
Frankl developed "therapy through meaning"
Logotherapy
I/thou approach were client isn't objectified...therapist/client relationship is what promotes change
Rollo May
key figure for bringing existentialism from Europe to U.S.
Irvin Yalom
which existential theorist focuses on 4 givens of existence: death; freedom & responsibility; existential isolation; and meaninglessness
Existential Psychotherapy
Born from a phenomenological philosophy of "humanness. Humans are in a constant state of transition, evolving and becoming and Clients are searching for meaning in their subjective worlds
Common questions/sources of existential angst for clients
"Who am I?" "I will die." "What does it all mean?" "Will I die alone?" "How am I going to get to where I want to be in my life?"
Awareness
In existentialism, the terms We are finite--time is limited. We have the potential and the choice, to act or not to act. Meaning is not automatic--we must seek it. We are subject to loneliness, meaninglessness, emptiness, guilt, and isolation is called...
Identity
In existentialism "the courage to be," we must trust ourselves to search within and find our own answers is called...
Relationships
Existentialism states, "At their best our ____ are based on our desire for fulfillment, not our deprivation."
Meaning
according to existentialism what must be pursued obliquely and by finding it in life is a by-product of a commitment to creating, loving, and working
Anxiety
Existential therapists help clients develop a healthy view of ...
Anxiety
Existentialism states what can be a stimulus for growth as we become aware of and accept our freedom
Goal
Helping clients to accept their freedom and responsibility to act is a ____ of Existential therapy
The core of the existential therapeutic relationship
Respect and faith in the clients' potential to cope. Sharing reactions with genuine concern and empathy
Existential therapy
The person-to-person relationship is key. The relationship demands that therapists be in contact with their own phenomenological world...
Existential therapy
core of the therapeutic relationship is respect & faith in clients' potential to cope, sharing reactions w/ genuine concern & empathy
Existential therapy
Clients are responsible for their behavior in group, settings provide a mirror of how clients may act in the world. In feedback members learn to view themselves through another's eyes. Members learn how their behavior affects others
Limitation of Existential Psychotherapy
The individualistic focus may not fit within the world view of clients from a collectivist culture. Some clients prefer a more directive approach to counseling.
Limitation of Existential Psychotherapy
high focus on self-determination may not fully account for real-life limitations of those oppressed with limited choices. Limited empirical support.
Inauthenticity
Jean Sartre term for lacking awareness of personal responsibility for our lives & passively assuming our existence is controlled by external forces
Existential therapy
central task of therapist ask client to recognize how they have allowed others to decide for them, encourage them choose for themselves
Existential therapy
which therapy uses anxiety as a potential source of growth
Existential anxiety
unavoidable result of being confronted with givens of existence-death, freedom, choice, isolation & meaninglessness
Normal anxiety
appropriate response to an event being faced, can be used as a motivation to change & doesn't have to be repressed. We cannot survive without some anxiety
Neurotic anxiety
out of proportion to the situation, typically out of awareness tends to immobilize the person, being psychologically healthy means living with as little of this as possible
Existential therapy
a journey taken by therapist & client
Martin Buber's Existential therapy
relating in I/thou fashion means there's direct, mutual, present interaction therapist strives to create caring, intimate relationships with clients
I/thou fashion
means there's direct, mutual, present interaction therapist strives to create caring, intimate relationships with clients
Existential Brief Therapy
focuses clients on significant areas starting @ the initial phase, also makes therapy a catalyst for clients to be actively involved in ea session
Gestalt Therapy
Existential & Phenomenological - it is grounded in the client's "here and now"
Gestalt Therapy
Promotes direct experiencing rather than the abstractness of talking about situations...
client is encouraged to become the hurt child
Relational Gestalt Therapy
contemporary, stresses dialogue & relationship between client & therapist
Gestalt Paradoxical Theory of Change
we change when we become aware of what we are as opposed to trying to become what we are not.
Holism
full range of human functioning includes thoughts, feelings, behaviors, body, language and dreams
Gestalt Field Theory
The field is the client's environment which consists of therapist, client and all that goes on between them. Client is a participant in a constantly changing field
Gestalt Figure Formation Process
how people organize experiences from moment to moment & how aspects of the environment (background) become focal point of clients attn & interest (foreground)
Gestalt Theory
which theory says, Our "power is in the present" Nothing exists except the "now"
The past is gone and the future has not yet arrived
Unfinished Business
in Gestalt theory feelings about the past are unexpressed & are associated with distinct memories & fantasies. Feelings not fully experienced linger in the background and interfere with effective contact are called..
Gestalt Therapy
one aim of ___ ____ is to help clients become aware of their present experience
Impasse
time when external support not available or customary way of being doesn't work
Boundary disturbances
the defenses we develop to prevent us from experiencing the present fully.
Introjection
1 of the 5 major channels of resistance uncritically accept others beliefs & standards without assimilating to make them congruent to what we are
Projection
1 of the 5 major channels of resistance when we disown aspects of ourselves by assigning it to the environment, attributes of our personality inconsistent with self image blames on others
Retroflection
1 of the 5 major channels of resistance turn back on ourselves what we'd like to do to someone else or doing to ourselves what we'd like someone to do to or for us
Deflection
1 of the 5 major channels of resistance distracting or veering off making it difficult to maintain a sustained sense of contact. Diffuse contact thru overuse of humor, generalizations, & questions instead of statements.
Confluence (enmeshment)
1 of the 5 major channels of resistance blurring the difference between self & environment. Strive to blend in & get along with everyone
Six Components of Gestalt Therapy Methodology
The continuum of experience; here and now; paradoxical theory of change; the experiment;
authentic encounter; Process-oriented diagnosis
Language that denies power
In Gestalt therapy when you ask a client to experiment by omitting qualifiers in their statements is called...
Unfinished business
suppressed internal dialogue represents what...
Dialogue
general orientation of Gestalt therapy is toward...
Gestalt experiments
what should be aimed @ awareness not @ simple solutions to a clients problem
Exercise
termed in Gestalt therapy as ready made techniques used to make things happen in a session or achieve a goal, can be a catalyst for individual work or promote group interaction
Experiments
termed in Gestalt therapy as growing out of interaction between client & therapist, emerge within dialogue, can be the cornerstone of experiential learning, whatever happens should be a surprise to both client & therapist
Get clients permission & they must trust you
for a Gestalt experiment to be successful you must first...
Traditional Gestalt Therapy
all about abrasive confrontation, theatrics & intense catharsis (purging of emotions)
Conventional Gestalt Therapy
confrontation can be done in a manner that clients cooperate especially when invited to examine their behaviors, attitudes, & thoughts
Internal dialogue exercise
1 of the 7 Gestalt Therapy interventions goal is to bring about functioning & acceptance of aspects of ones personality that's been disowned & denied. Main division is between the "top dog" and the "underdog."
Internal dialogue exercise
conflict between 2 opposing poles in personality is rooted in the introjection mechanism by incorp aspects of others, usually parents
Empty chair technique
Internal dialogue exercise way of getting the client to externalize the interjection..client role plays "top dog" in one chair and "underdog" in the other chair
Internal dialogue exercise
conflict is resolved when client accepts & integrates, rather than disassociates both sides
Internal dialogue exercise
in this Gestalt exercise aim is not to rid certain traits but learn to accept both polarities
Reversal exercise
certain symptoms & behaviors often represent reversals of latent or underlying impulses, this Gestalt exercise reverses clients typical style to accept their negative with their positive side
Reversal exercise
Gestalt exercise that helps clients to accept certain personal attributes they have tried to deny
Rehearsal exercise
Gestalt therapy sharing this with the therapist out loud gives awareness of preparatory means, how client tries to meet others expectations, degree they want 2b approved, accepted, liked, how far they go to attain these.
Gestalt Exaggeration exercise
consists of asking client to exaggerate a movement or gesture repeatedly to intensify feelings attached to behavior to make inner meanings clearer.
Gestalt Staying with the Feeling exercise
when client refers to an unpleasant feeling urge them to stay with it and go deeper into the feeling or behavior they wish to avoid, the goal to unblock & make way for newer growth
Gestalt Dream Work
does not interpret or analyze but brings these back to life & relive them as though they are happening now, become a part of it
Gestalt Dream Work
in this exercise you make a list of all details of the event, remembering each person, event & mood, become each part by transforming yourself & invent dialogue becoming more aware of the range of your feelings
Royal road to integration
according to Perls (1969) dreams are what as client acts out fight between opposing sides to accept & integrate their opposing forces
Perls says the dream is..
the most spontaneous expression for a human, it represents unfinished situations and contains existential message about oneself & current struggle
Making the Rounds Exercise
Gestalt technique has a group member go & speak or do something w/each group member
Making the Rounds Exercise
purpose of this Gestalt technique is for a person to confront, risk, disclose, experiment with new behavior, grow & change
Making the Rounds Exercise
Gestalt therapists do this after sensing a group member wanting to participate but holding back by asking, "are u willing to do something now to get yourself more invested to work on gaining trust & self confidence"
Dreams
According to Perl (1969) what are the royal road to integration (wholeness)
Gestalt Group Therapy
Leaders actively design experiments for the group while focusing on awareness and contact, encourages direct experience and action for the members
Gestalt Group Therapy
Here-and-now focus allows members to bring unfinished business to the present.
Gestalt Group Therapy
This technique is also very effective in collective cultures because the attitude of respect, interest, compassion & presence
Limitation of Gestalt Therapy
approach has the potential for the therapist to abuse power by using powerful techniques without proper training
Limitation of Gestalt Therapy
approach may not be useful for clients who have difficulty abstracting and imagining
Limitation of Gestalt Therapy
emphasis on therapist authenticity & self disclosure overpowering for some clients
Limitation of Gestalt Therapy
high focus on emotion may pose limitations for clients who have been culturally conditioned to be emotionally reserved
BF Skinner
father of the behavioral approach to psychology
John B Watson
father of behaviorism
Behavioral Therapy
Primary emphasis on effect of environment on behavior
BF Skinner
a determinist e.g. didn't believe humans have free choice, stressed cause & effect links between object, environment, & behavior
Albert Bandura
pioneered work on social modeling/learning, prominent role of observational learning & social modeling in motivation, thought & action. Renamed his theory to Social Cognitive Theory
Behavioral Therapy
these practitioners focus on observable behavior, current determinants of behavior, learning experiences promoting change, tailor treatment strategies to indiv clients & rigorous assessment evaluation
Behavioral Theory
originated in the 50's & early 60's radical departure from psychoanalytic view in application of classical & operant conditioning principles (respondent & reward behavior)
Albert Bandura
60's developed social learning theory combined classical & operant cond with observational learning
Classical Conditioning
certain respondent behaviors (knee jerks, salivation) elicited passively
Operant Conditioning
actions operate on environment producing consequences if reinforcing increases chances behavior will occur again
Behavioral Therapy
key concept, view of human nature-person is the producer & product of their environment. Current trend is developing procedures that actually give control to clients to increase their range of freedom
(1 of the 6) Basic characteristics & assumptions of BT
based on principles & procedures of the scientific method, change maladaptive to adaptive behaviors
(1 of the 6) Basic characteristics & assumptions of BT
deal with clients current problems to help change maladaptive to adaptive behaviors
(1 of the 6) Basic characteristics & assumptions of BT
clients are expected to assume an active role by engaging specific actions to deal with their problems making this therapy largely educational
(1 of the 6) Basic characteristics & assumptions of BT
assumes change can take place without insight into underlying dynamics (different than existential & Gestalt therapies)
(1 of the 6) Basic characteristics & assumptions of BT
focus on assessing overt & covert behavior directly, id problem & evaluate change
(1 of the 6) Basic characteristics & assumptions of BT
treatment interventions are individually tailored to specific problems experienced by clients
Behavioral Therapy
In the therapeutic process goals are determined by the client, goals are also considered central importance in this therapy
BT's general goals
1.Increase personal choice, create new cond's for learning; 2. counselor assists to define specific treatment goals @ 1st session; 3. formal assessment target behaviors 4 change; 4. goals 2b clear, concrete, understood & mutually agreed upon by client/therapist; 5. all resulting in a contract guiding course of therapy adjustable thru out the process as needed
ABC Model
behavior (b) influenced by preceding events called antecedents (a) & events that follow called consequences (c)
Antecedents
elicit a certain behavior
Consequences
increase or decrease a behavior
The assessment interview
id's particular antecedent & consequent events influencing the clients behavior
Behavioral Therapy
therapist assumes clients make progress because the technique works, not the relationship between client/therapist
Key principle in BT technique
use the least aversive means possible to change behavior
Positive reinforcement
known as the most powerful change agent according to BT Skinner
Applied behavioral analysis
BT OC technique effective in working with developmentally delayed people includes +/- reinforcement, extinction, & +/- punishment
Relaxation training
to cope with stress BT technique most commonly used for stress//anxiety, asthma, headache, hypertension, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome & panic disorder
Systemic desensitization
one of the BT exposure therapies uses CC were phobias are paired with relaxation to extinct the fear
Systemic desensitization
BT technique used to treat phobias and other anxiety disorders by pairing gradual exposure to an anxiety provoking situation w/relaxation
Desensitization
portion of BT technique reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed..exposure then relaxation, exposure then relaxation, exposure then relaxation..etc
Anxiety hierarchy
a rank-ordered list of what the client fears, from least to greatest.
In Vivo exposure
BT technique that involves client exposure to the actual anxiety-evoking events rather than simply imagining these situations.
In Vivo exposure
has been a cornerstone of behavior therapy for decades
Flooding
in BT can be in vivo or imaginal prolonged & extensive exposure to stimuli that evokes high anxiety without the opportunity to avoid them
Interoceptive conditioning
Classical conditioning of panic attacks in response to internal bodily sensations of arousal
Eye movement desensitization & reprocessing (EMDR)
BT exposure based therapy involving imaginal flooding, cognitive restructuring & use of rhythmic eye movements & other bi-lateral stimulation to treat traumatic stress disorders
Social skills training
A BT designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes shaping, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal.
Social skills training
Includes anger management and assertion training where clients are taught to replace maladaptive social skills with adaptive skills
Self modification (management) programs
giving psychology away, when psychologists are willing to share their knowledge so consumers increase self directed lives independently
Self modification (management) programs
teach people to use coping skills in problematic situations independently away from a counselors session
False hope syndrome
usually a result of repeated failure due to unrealistic expectations when using self modification programs
Multi modal therapy
begins with a comprehensive assessment of the 7 modalities of human functioning & interactions among them
7 modalities of human functioning
BASICID. Behavior, Affective response, Sensations, Images, Cognitions, Interpersonal relationships, Drugs
Multi modal therapy
therapist id 1 specific issue from each aspect of basicid as a target for change & teach clients a range of techniques to use for faulty thinking
Applied behavior analysis
training new behavior, effective in working with developmentally delayed people, aka behavior modification, the use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior
Mindfulness
becoming aware of ones own mind from one moment to the next with gentle acceptance
Dialectic behavior therapy (DBT)
learning emotional regulation & mindfulness, used for treatment of borderline personality disorder
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
BT learning acceptance & non judgement of thoughts & feelings as they occur.
Mindfulness based stress reduction
BT meditation & yoga includes a body scan meditation help clients observe all sensations in their body
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
focus allowing experience to come & go while pursuing a meaningful life
Behavioral therapy group counseling
treatments a) rely on empirical support. b) emphasize self management skills & though restructuring. & c) are typically brief
Behavioral therapy group counseling
Leader assumes role of teacher & encourage members to learn & practice skills in everyday living
Behavioral therapy group counseling
Leaders and members create collaborative precise treatment goals & objectively measure treatment outcome
Behavioral therapy strength
Doesn't generally place emphasis on experiencing catharsis (purging emotions)
Behavioral therapy strength
stresses changing specific behaviors & developing problem solving skills
Behavioral therapy strength
specificity; task oriented; focus on objectivity; cognition & behavior; action oriented; dealing with present > than past; brief interventions; & teaches coping strategies
Behavioral therapy strength
focuses on environmental conditions contributing to clients problems, takes into consideration social & cultural dimensions of the clients life
Behavioral therapy limitation
heavy focus on behavioral change may detract from clients experience of emotions
Behavioral therapy limitation
some counselors believe role of teacher de emphasizes the important relational factors in the client/therapist relationship
Behavioral therapy limitation
does not place emphasis on insight therefore missing root issues causing problems
Behavioral therapy limitation
tends to focus on symptoms rather than underlying causes of maladaptive behaviors
Behavioral therapy limitation
potential for counselor to manipulate client using this approach
Behavioral therapy limitation
some clients may find a directive approach imposing or to mechanistic