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Sociology Deviance and Crime Quiz
Terms in this set (40)
is a violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms,
whether folkways, mores, or codified law
In a structural functionalist perspective, one of the positive contributions of deviance is that it fosters _________________.
society's response to that act
Whether and act is deviant or not depends on
the regulation and enforcement of norms.
an arrangement of practices and behaviors
on which society's members base their daily lives.
the means of enforcing rules
Are rewards given for conforming to norms
are punishments for violating norms.
sanctions that occur in face-to-face interactions
sanctions that are officially recognized and enforced
believed that deviance is a necessary part of a successful society and argued that deviance is important because it challenges people's present view. When deviance is punished it reaffirms currently held social norms.
agreed that deviance is an inherent part of a functioning society, but he expanded on Durkheim's ideas by developing strain theory.
notes that access to socially acceptable goals plays a part in determining whether a person conforms or deviates
Conformity ,Innovation, Ritualism, Retreatism, and Rebellion
five ways according to Merton that people respond to this gap between having a socially accepted goal but no socially accepted way to pursue it:
Those who conform
They pursue their goals to the extent that they can through socially accepted means and choose not to deviate.
Those who innovate
pursue goals they cannot reach through legitimate means by
instead using criminal or deviant means.
Those who ritualize
lower their goals until they can reach them through socially acceptable ways. These members of society focus on conformity rather than attaining a distant dream
Those who retreat
reject society's goals and means. Some beggars and street people
have withdrawn from society's goal of financial success
Those who rebel
replace a society's goals and means with their own.
Terrorists or freedom fighters look to overthrow a society's goals through socially unacceptable means
Social disorganization theory
asserts that crime is most likely to occur in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social control.
Social disorganization theory
points to broad social factors as the cause of deviance.
Cultural deviance theory
suggests that conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower-class society causes crime.
Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay
Develop the cultural deviance theory
Shaw and McKay
concluded that socioeconomic status correlated to race and ethnicity resulted in a higher crime rate.
looks to social and economic factors as the causes of crime and deviance.
small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resources.
is a theoretical approach that can be used to explain how societies and/or social groups come to view behaviors as deviant or conventional.
examines the ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person
by members of society.
is a violation of norms that does not result in any long-term effects on the individual's self-image or interactions with others
occurs when a person's self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society
is a label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual
Differential association theory
stating that individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance.
states that social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society.
Created the differential association theory
State the control theory
Attachment, commitment ,involvement and belief
Four types of social bonds that connects an individuals with society
measures our connections to others.
refers to the investments we make in the community.
participation in socially legitimate activities, lessen a person's likelihood of deviance.
an agreement on common values in society.
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