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Location of the Heart

in thorax between the lungs in the inferior mediastinum


superficial double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart

Two layers of the hert serous membrane

visceral pericardium (epicardium), parietal pericardium

Parietal Pericardium

outside layer that lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium

Serous Fluid

fills the space between the layers of pericardium


outermost connective tissue layer of the heart


cardiac muscle


inner lining of the heart


receiving chambers

Heart Septa

interventricular septum, interatrial septum

Atrioventricular (AV) valves

between atria and ventricles

AV Valves anchored in place by...

chordae tendineae

Bicuspid (mitral) valve

left side of heart

Tricuspid valve

right side of heart

Semilunar Valves' Location

between ventricle and artery

2 Types of Semilunar Valves

Pulmonary, aortic

Coronary Arteries

branch from the aorta to supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood

Cardiac Veins

drain the myocardium of blood

Coronary Sinus

large vein on the posterior of the heart, receives blood from cardiac veins

Blood empties into the right atrium via the...

coronary sinus

Sinoatrial (SA) node

pacemaker; in right atrium

Atrioventricular (AV) node

at the junction of the atria and ventricles

Atrioventricular bundle

in the interventricular septum

Purkinje fibers

spread within the ventricle wall muscles


rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute


slow heart rate less than 60 beats per minutes


heart contraction


heart relaxation

Cardiac Output (CO)

amount of blood pumped by each ventricle of the heart in one minute

Stroke Volume (SV)

volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one contraction (each heartbeat)

Typical Heart Rate

75 beats per minute

The Vascular System

Arteries, Arterioles, Capillary beds, Venules, Blood Vessels

Three Tunic Layers

intima, media, extrena

Tunic Intima


Tunic Media

smooth muscle, controlled by sympathetic nervous system

Tunic Extrena

mostly fibrous connective tissue

Vascular Shunt

vessel directly connecting an arteriole to a venule

True Capillaries

exchange vessels

Systolic BP

pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction

Diastolic BP

pressure when ventricles relax

Factors Effecting BP

age, weight, time of day, exercise, body position, emotional state

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