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Cardiovascular System Study Guide

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Location of the Heart
in thorax between the lungs in the inferior mediastinum
Pericardium
superficial double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
Two layers of the hert serous membrane
visceral pericardium (epicardium), parietal pericardium
Parietal Pericardium
outside layer that lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium
Serous Fluid
fills the space between the layers of pericardium
Epicardium
outermost connective tissue layer of the heart
Myocardium
cardiac muscle
Endocardium
inner lining of the heart
Atria
receiving chambers
Heart Septa
interventricular septum, interatrial septum
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
between atria and ventricles
AV Valves anchored in place by...
chordae tendineae
Bicuspid (mitral) valve
left side of heart
Tricuspid valve
right side of heart
Semilunar Valves' Location
between ventricle and artery
2 Types of Semilunar Valves
Pulmonary, aortic
Coronary Arteries
branch from the aorta to supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood
Cardiac Veins
drain the myocardium of blood
Coronary Sinus
large vein on the posterior of the heart, receives blood from cardiac veins
Blood empties into the right atrium via the...
coronary sinus
Sinoatrial (SA) node
pacemaker; in right atrium
Atrioventricular (AV) node
at the junction of the atria and ventricles
Atrioventricular bundle
in the interventricular septum
Purkinje fibers
spread within the ventricle wall muscles
Tachycardia
rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute
Bradycardia
slow heart rate less than 60 beats per minutes
Systole
heart contraction
Diastole
heart relaxation
Cardiac Output (CO)
amount of blood pumped by each ventricle of the heart in one minute
Stroke Volume (SV)
volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one contraction (each heartbeat)
Typical Heart Rate
75 beats per minute
The Vascular System
Arteries, Arterioles, Capillary beds, Venules, Blood Vessels
Three Tunic Layers
intima, media, extrena
Tunic Intima
endothelium
Tunic Media
smooth muscle, controlled by sympathetic nervous system
Tunic Extrena
mostly fibrous connective tissue
Vascular Shunt
vessel directly connecting an arteriole to a venule
True Capillaries
exchange vessels
Systolic BP
pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction
Diastolic BP
pressure when ventricles relax
Factors Effecting BP
age, weight, time of day, exercise, body position, emotional state