WFC 154 Midterm 2
Terms in this set (88)
a biological interaction where one organism benefits at the expense of the other
a large parasite that can be seen with the naked eye
ex: ticks, mites
parasite that cannot be seen with the naked eye
ex: viruses, bacteria, fungi
abnormal health condition. an interaction between a specific pathogen and a susceptible host
a disease causing organism
recently expanded its range into a new, susceptible region
previously present but has recently encountered new host species or increased in pathogenicity
How are conservation actions informed by the pathogen's origins?
If a novel pathogen, focus on limiting pathogen spread.
If an endemic pathogen, focus on controlling disease drivers
How can diseases be managed?
Prevention through biosecurity, decontamination, habitat alteration, focused monitoring, treatment of focal species, treatment of reservoir species
the act of employing to the greatest possible advantage
exploitation to the point of diminishing returns. resource is unable to replenish itself
vital rates of a population depend of density of individuals in the population
what causes density dependence?
a limiting resource
Maximum Sustainable Yiel
greatest rate of removal of individuals that is sustainable. Must maintain the population size at a balance of (maximum growth rate)*(many individuals). Must sustain the highest level of productivity (quickest rate of individuals produced).
Constant quotas assume...
accurate estimate of N
accurate reporting of harvest
carrying capacity is constant
no time lag between N and K
Age structure does not affect population growth rate
Population growth rate does not have rapid thresholds
Proportional quotas assume
Accurate estimate of population size
Accurate reporting of harvesting
extremely high rights, despite their stable attracting equilibrium, might still drive N to extinction
How are bluefin tuna and groupers different? How would regulation be different?
Blue fin tuna are migratory, adults school, and have high unit value. This makes regulation for them difficult.
Goliath grouper is non-migratory, adults solitary, and there is moderate value for catch-release. This makes regulation possible and successful.
How do economists view population declines via fishing/hunting(AKA the old paradigm)? What is the problem with this viewpoint?
Economists say that as populations decline, the per unit cost of hunting/fishing rises dramatically. This will lead to reduced hunting/fishing pressure and populations will recover. The problem with this is that it assumes substitutable use. it assumes that value of items does not increase dramatically with scarcity.
Rarity increases the value of a species. Incentive to drive the species to extinction is more profitable rather than preserving living animals for sustained value. Forced scarcity increases their value and leads to poaching.
What are ecological concerns regarding the old paradigm?
Rate of exploitation must be less than natural rate of increase.
Population must remain above minimal viable size.
Population should retain its functional ecosystem role.
Genetic diversity should not be degraded.
Size and age structure, sex ratios must not be altered
the long timescale for recovering from harmful genetic changes caused by exploitative selection (hunting)
How does valuing older and larger individuals in hunting hurt the population?
Usually increased fecundity with increased size, meaning the most reproductive individuals are being killed.
What are the impacts of hunting upper sizes/age classes?
Interfering with social structure and reducing population growth rates. Size at maturity is reduced.
What are remedies to alleviate the ecological concern regarding fishing?
Create slot limits. Can only catch fish of certain measurements. Create reserves/exclusion zones
What are human sources of greenhouse gases?
Electricity, transport, industry, agriculture.
in terms of carbon emissions, what you eat is about twice as important as what you drive
What are positive feed back loops? Example?
The outcome of some process causes that process to continue further.
Example: bare ground has a lower albedo (ability of a substance to reflect light) so melting snow leads to more eventual heat radiation
Example: warmer water holds less dissolved gas, including CO2. Fewer carbon sinks means warmer temperatures, meaning warmer water.
How will wildlife and biological communities respond to climate change?
Physiological responses, range shifts, changes in phenology.
Give examples of physiological responses to climate change.
Coral zooxanthellae will expel from the tissue because of excess CO2. This causes coral bleaching.
Temperature dependent sex determination causes a skew in sex ratios.
How will range shifts due to climate change?
There will be latitudinal shifts towards the poles
Give an example of a species suffering from range contraction via climate change
Arctic foxes cannot shift upward since there is no more habitat at northern ends. Competition and declines from red fox expansions occurs on the southern end of their habitat range. This causes a range contraction.
No analog communities
A community assemblage that does not match any known in the past 10,000 years. In other words, groups of organisms are forming new communities that do not match any known communities in the past. Species are interacting with species they have never interacted with before.
What are assisted migrations? What are the risks?
Assisted migrations are the intentional movement of at risk species from present habitat into new regions with suitable habitat. The risk is that it might disrupt ecosystem services and community interactions by introducing new species that will have negative effects on communities.
the study of the timing of events in organismal life histories. Events such as migrations, reproduction, hibernation/emergence
some species may be responding to climate faster or slower than their community, leading to a poor match between them and their resources/competitors
The rate of evolutionary change is unproportional to the amount of genetic diversity available. T/F?
False. The rate of evolutionary change is proportional to the amount of genetic diversity available.
What are the links between genetics and conservation?
Anthropogenic factors can shape genetic diversity of species/populations.
Small and/or isolated populations tend to cause genetic variation over time.
What are the two fundamental aims of conservation regarding genetic diversity?
To help maintain natural patterns of genetic diversity at many levels.
To provide tools for population monitoring and conservation planning
genes under selection. exert some influence on interactions of the individual with its environment. Affects fitness. Ex: sprint speed, eyesight
vast majority of genetic information. believed to code no specific products or codes products unrelated to fitness of individual to environment
What is the equation for total genetic diversity in species?
H(t) = H(p) + D(pT)
H(t): total genetic diversity in species
H(p): mean heterozygosity in populations
D(pT): divergence among populations
What factors affect total genetic diversity in species?
Life zones, degree of endemism, habitat requirements, degree of specialization, body size, territoriality
What is heterozygosity correlated with?
Correlated with individual fitness and population status. But less correlated with population status
What factors affect genetic variation?
Genetically effective population size N(e), mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, inbreeding, outbreeding, natural selection
Genetically effective population size
reflects the number of individuals contributing to the next generation. This is smaller than the census population size. Individuals do not contribute equally to a population.
What factors affect the genetically effective population size?
Age structure, and sex ratios, breeding strategy/ social structure, variation in reproductive output, population fluctuations from generation to generation
How do you calculate population fluctuation in N(e)
N(e)= t/[(1/N1) + (1/N2) ... + (1/Nt)]
Where t= # of generations and Nt is # of breeding individuals at time t. Even if we have good years, the average Ne is still low and is greatly affected by poor years
source of new alleles in the population. most mutations are neutral
random fluctuation of gene frequencies over time due to chance alone. drift can lead to rapid loss of variation. It is a major concern for small populations. Rate of loss from drift is usually slower than the time frame for conservation action. Adaptive alleles are under selection pressure and are more likely to be retained.
mating between close relatives. increases frequency of homozygous genotypes. causes inbreeding depression which causes increase in deleterious genes
Ex: florida panthers suffered from abnormalities such as kinked tails due to inbreeding depression
Population gets smaller -> inbreeding increases -> heterozygosity is reduced in offspring, reducing ability to respond to environmental change -> semilethal recessive alleles are expressed in homozygous conditions-> fecundity is reduced and mortality increases -> population becomes smaller -> extinction
reduction in offspring fitness resulting from loss of local adaptation.
Ex: reintroductions and translocations
two different sets of genes that has better fitness than the parents
differential survival or reproduction based on genotype. can eliminate deleterious alleles from population. can increase overall fitness of population by maximizing survival or fecundity.
What is the ideal population?
1:1 sex ratio
large population size
loose mating strategy or monogamy
equal reproductive output
minimum viable population
the smallest isolated population having a 99% chance of remaining extant for 1000 years despite the foreseeable effects of demographic, environmental, and genetic stochasticity.
What are requirements for determining the minimum viable population?
Must consider atypical years. Requires detailed demographic study of the population.
Does greater variability require larger or smaller populations for persistence?
Greater variability requires larger population for persistence
decline in individual fitness at low population density. Low reproductive output or high mortality at low population densities.
Why might there be low birth rates in small populations?
Some animals require large breeding leks for reproductive success. Fewer animals means lower chance of finding mates. Thus, birth rates decrease as population size decreases
If a population has inverse density dependence or Allee effects, what does this mean from a conservation perspective? Recovery times? Risk of extinction? Need for human intervention?
It is difficult for a IDD population to recover back to a viable number. This means longer recovery times, greater risk of extinction, and required human intervention.
random demographic variation. individuals in a population have probabilities of survival and reproduction. Apply independently to each individual. Sampling variances inversely proportional to population size
Why is genetics important in conservation?
Genetic diversity loss -> decreased viability
What are some current genetic tools and techniques used in conservation?
Neutral markers, next generation sequencing technology, environmental DNA
microsatellites. mutate rapidly and can be used to differentiate between different populations or species
next generation sequencing technology
used to identify base pairs in the genome that differ among populations (SNPs)
Environmental DNA (eDNA)
Can take sample of water, which has residual DNA from species inhabiting it. Allows scientists to tell if a species is in the water without actually seeing it.
the scientific and objective study of animal behavior. focuses on animals in natural conditions
the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior
looking at the quantifiable differences of individuals within a population. correlated behaviors within an individual
How do seabirds find food in a visually featureless ocean?
An identifiable biogenic odor cue called dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is more apparent where birds tend to forage.
Why do seabirds consume plastic bags?
Because when plastic bags decompose, they give off the DMS odor
temporary threshold shift
a temporary, involuntary loss n hearing sensitivity (both amplitude and frequency) after an acute exposure to a powerful sound
permanent threshold shift
A permanent loss in hearing sensitivity (both amplitude and frequency) after chronic exposure to a powerful sound.
a temporary, voluntary reduction in hearing sensitivity when warned of an impending powerful sound
the study of the morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations that improve the survival of an organism in its abiotic and biotic environments.
causal mechanisms related to the physical processes underlying a response, or the physical environmental stimuli
functional mechanisms related to the adaptive value or evolutionary history of the response
interface between physiological ecology and conservation biology. inking patterns to mechanisms.
Genes<->tissue specific proteins<->tissue and organ function<-> organism function <-> population biology <-> ecological assembly and function
how individuals/species perform differently. allows us to make predictions about wildlife populations in the face of changing environments
individuals within a species
environmental stressor impacts
organisms evolved to cope with natural stressors. human activities change environment directly and indirectly. sublethal impacts can become cumulative and detrimental
energy and response required to maintain homeostasis through predictable change
energy required to responsed to unpredictable environmental changes
as climate change and humans alter environmental conditions, animals can no longer cope with new challenges. They are highly adapted to one environment, and are suddenly living in another. Rate of evolution can't keep up with rapid environmental changes
an environment that animals perceive as good quality but isn't. Occurs when organisms make poor habitat choices based on cues that correlated formerly with habitat quality.
how many individuals are usually needed for a minimum viable population?
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