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Meteorology Exam 2

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Mixing Ratio
The ratio of the mass of water vapor in a given volume (parcel) of air to the mass of the remaining dry air describes the
a relatively large number of water vapor molecules in the air
A high water vapor pressure indicates:
higher water temperature in the Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf Coast states are more humid in summer than the coastal areas of Southern California mainly because of the:
taking a shower and letting the air circulate through the home
Which of the following will increase the relative humidity in a home during the winter?
the level of the water in the glass would not change
If a glass of water were surrounded by saturated air:
relative humidity
The percentage of water vapor present in the air compared to that required for saturation is the
at the time when the air temperature is lowest
The time of day when the relative humidity reaches a maximum value is usually:
decrease
As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the relative humidity will
more, lower
Suppose saturated polar air has an air temperature and dew point of -10o C, and unsaturated desert air has an air temperature of 35o C and a dew point of 10o C. The desert air contains ____ water vapor and has a ____ relative humidity than the polar air.
dew point temperature
The temperature to which air must be cooled in order to become saturated is the:
remain the same
As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will
dew point temperature
Which of the following is the best indicator of the actual amount of water vapor in the air?
at saturation, latent heat of condensation is released into the air
Nighttime temperatures rarely drop below the dew point temperature because
when the air temperature is highest
At what time of day is the relative humidity normally at a minimum?
increase, decrease
If very cold air is brought indoors and warmed with no change in its moisture content, the saturation vapor pressure of this air will ____ and the relative humidity of this air will ____.
Relative Humidity
Which of the following will increase in a rising parcel of air?
increase, increase
If the air temperature remains constant, evaporating water into the air will ____ the dew point and ____ the relative humidity.
Decreases
As the difference between the air temperature and the dew point increases, the relative humidity:
there is more water vapor in the air in Arizona
In a blinding snowstorm in Vermont the air temperature and dew-point temperature are both 30o F. Meanwhile, under clear skies in Arizona, the air temperature is 85o F and the dew point temperature is 38 degrees F. From this information you could conclude:
35 mb
If water vapor comprises 3.5% of an air parcel whose total pressure is 1000 mb, the water vapor pressure would be:
True
The dew point temperature is a measure of the total amount of water vapor in the air.
40 degrees F
At 40o F, the atmosphere is saturated with water vapor. If the air temperature increases to 60o F, with no addition or removal of water vapor, one may conclude that the dew point is about:
Increases
As the air temperature increases, the air's capacity for water vapor:
Decreases
As the difference between the air temperature and the dew point increases, the relative humidity:
Higher than before
Suppose the dew point of cold outside air is the same as the dew point of the air indoors. If the door is opened and cold air replaces some of the warm air, then the new relative humidity indoors would be:
Radiational Cooling
The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of:
Frost Forms When:
objects on the ground cool below the dew point temperature, the dew point is 32o F or below, and water vapor changes into ice without first becoming a liquid (all of the above)
clear winter night with a slight breeze
Radiation fog forms best on a:
Advection Fog
The fog that forms along the Pacific coastline of North America is mainly this type:
Can be above or below freezing
When you see your breath on a cold morning the air temperature:
Seed the fog with dry ice
A reasonably successful method of dispersing cold fog is to:
This is and incorrect association
altostratus -- high cloud
cirrostratus clouds are present
A halo around the moon means that:
Nimbostratus
Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with ____ clouds.
Noctilucent
Which of the following cloud types would be found at the highest elevation above the earth's surface?
Ice Particles
Cirrus clouds are composed primarily of:
altocumulus
A middle cloud that sometimes forms in parallel waves or bands is:
Cumulonimbus
An anvil-shaped top is most often associated with:
Cumulonimbus
Hail is usually associated with what cloud?
a way of determining cloud thickness and altitude
Infrared and visible satellite photographs might provide:
it is very cold, it is very warm and humid, and the addition of water vapor from your breath causes the air's relative humidity to exceed 100% (All of the above)
Exhaled breath from your mouth can condense when:
Incorrect Association
cumulus congestus -- anvil top
Stratocumulus
In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the lowest base?
Cirrostratus
Suppose the sky is completely covered with a thin, white layered-type cloud. You look at the ground and see that objects cast a distinct shadow. From this you conclude that the cloud type must be:
Cumulonimbus
As Apollo 12 ascended into the atmosphere, the height of the surrounding clouds was noted to be 42,000 feet. A lightning stroke was seen within these clouds, indicating that they must have been:
Scattered
Which term below describes a situation in which clouds cover between one-tenth and five-tenths of the sky?
Emitted Infrared Light
Satellite photographs taken of clouds at night use:
Geostationary satellites:
orbit the earth once each day, remain above a fixed spot above the equator, and are placed in higher orbits than most polar orbiting satellites (All of the above).
Satellites can:
monitor the amount of snow cover, provide information about the earth-atmosphere energy balance, provide information about surface water temperatures, monitor the movement of icebergs (All of the above)
Polar orbiting satellites:
on each successive orbit view an area to the west of the previous orbit
For Frozen Dew to Form:
the dew point must be above freezing, the minimum temperature must fall to freezing or below, and dew must form and then freeze (All of the above).
From the bottom up
When radiation fog "burns off", the fog tends to dissipate:
Evaporation (mixing) Fog
Which fog does not necessarily form in air that is cooling?
Cirrocumulus
Which cloud is least likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground?
Altostratus
A dim, "watery" sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of ____ clouds.
Cumulonimbus
The name given to a towering cloud that has not fully developed into a thunderstorm is
Cirrocumulus
If a cloud appears white in a visible satellite photograph and white in an infrared picture, then the cloud could be:
15o C
If the environmental lapse rate is 5o C per 1000 m and the temperature at the earth's surface is 25o C, then the air temperature at 2000 m above the ground is:
Stable
If an air parcel is given a small push upward and it falls back to its original position, the atmosphere is said to be.
an adiabatic process
A rising parcel of air that does not exchange heat with its surroundings is an example of
Stable
Most thunderstorms do not extend very far into the stratosphere because the air in the stratosphere is:
Colder, More
An inversion represents an extremely stable atmosphere because air that rises into the inversion will eventually become ____ and ____ dense than the surrounding air.
11o C per 1000 m
Which of the following environmental lapse rates would represent the most unstable atmosphere in a layer of unsaturated air?
stable, unstable
A conditionally unstable atmosphere is ____ with respect to unsaturated air and ____ with respect to saturated air.
Cumulonimbus
Which cloud type below would most likely form in an unstable atmosphere?
air motions caused by subsidence
Which of the following is not a way of producing clouds?
Thermals
Soaring birds in flight, like hawks and eagles, often indicate the presence of
Lenticular clouds
Which of the following cloud types would commonly be found downwind of a mountain:
False
T/F Sinking air sometimes cools adiabatically
Increases
Subsidence ____ stability
Saturation
Conditional instability depends on the condition of
moist adiabatic lapse rate
The rate at which the temperature changes inside a rising (or descending) parcel of saturated air is called the:
the fact that latent heat is released by a rising parcel of saturated air
The difference between the "moist" and "dry" adiabatic rates is due to:
it determines the vertical motion of air
A knowledge of air stability is important because:
cool the surface and warm the air aloft
Which set of conditions, working together, will make the atmosphere the most stable?
high, sinking
Subsidence inversions are best developed with ____ pressure areas because of the ____ air motions associated with them
An Inversion
Which of the following conditions would be described as the most stable?
air temperature 35 oC, dew point 10 oC
Which of the following set of surface conditions would produce a convective cumulus cloud with the highest base?
Convection
The vertical motion of air caused by sun heating the ground is called:
10o C colder than at the surface
If a parcel of unsaturated air with a temperature of 30o C rises from the surface to an altitude of 1000 m, the unsaturated parcel temperature at this altitude would be about:
Stratus
Which cloud type would most likely form in absolutely stable air?
greater, less
In a conditionally unstable atmosphere, the environmental lapse rate will be ____ than the moist adiabatic rate and ____ than the dry adiabatic rate.
Unstable
If an air parcel is given a small push upward and it continues to move upward on its own accord, the atmosphere is said to be:
Have higher cloud bases
If you were to take a trip during the summer from Ohio to Nevada, you would most likely observe that afternoon cumulus clouds ____ as you travel west.
False
The environmental lapse rate is almost always the same as the adiabatic lapse rate.
Increases the environmental lapse rate
Cold advection at higher altitudes, and daytime solar heating
small droplets evaporate more quickly than large droplets
What best describes the curvature effect?
the number of ice crystals in the cloud
Which of the following is not an important factor in the production of rain by the collision-coalescence process?
Coalescence
The merging of liquid cloud droplets by collision is called:
cumulonimbus cloud
If rain falls on one side of a street and not on the other side, the rain most likely fell from a:
Glaciated
When only ice crystals exist in a cloud, the cloud is said to be:
Greater than
At the same sub-freezing temperature, the saturation vapor pressure just above a liquid water surface is ____ the saturation vapor pressure above an ice surface:
Virga
Rain which falls from a cloud but evaporates before reaching the ground is referred to as:
snow is a good insulator
Which below best describes why a fluffy covering of snow is able to protect sensitive plants and their root systems from damaging low temperatures.
moist, near
The largest snowflakes would probably be observed in ____ air whose temperature is ____ freezing
freezing rain
Which type of precipitation would most likely form when the surface air temperature is slightly below freezing and the air temperature increases as you move upward away from the ground?
a hailstone
Precipitation with the greatest size (diameter) is:
amount of energy reflected back to a transmitter
Radar gathers information about precipitation in clouds by measuring the:
one hundred times larger
A typical raindrop is about ____ a typical cloud droplet
Drizzle
The lightest form of rain is?
water droplets dissolve hygroscopic nuclei and condensation can occur at relative humidities less than 100 percent
What best describes the solute effect?
a thick, warm cumulus cloud
Which cloud type below will only produce precipitation by the collision-coalescence process?
liquid droplets observed at temperatures below 0 oC (32 oF)
Supercooled cloud droplets are:
fall streaks
Snowflakes or ice crystals falling from high cirriform clouds are called:
moist air and temperatures near freezing
Large, heavy snowflakes are associated with:
freezing rain
Which type of precipitation would most likely form when the surface air temperature is slightly below freezing and the air temperature increases as you move upward away from the ground?
A trace
An amount of precipitation measured to be less than one hundredth of an inch (0.25 mm) is called:
rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow
In a typical advancing winter storm, which of the following sequences of precipitation types is most likely to occur?
Size
The main difference between a cloud drop and a raindrop is its:
Solute Effect
Condensation onto hygroscopic nuclei is possible at relative humidities less than 100 percent due to the:
faster, greater
Large raindrops fall ____ than smaller raindrops, and have a ____ terminal velocity than small raindrops.
thick, strong
If you observe large raindrops hitting the ground, you could probably say that the cloud overhead was ____ and had ____ updrafts.
ice crystals grow larger at the expense of the surrounding liquid cloud droplets
During the ice crystal process of rain formation:
-40 oC (-40 oF)
The temperature at which you would expect a cloud to become completely glaciated is
Accretion
The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled liquid droplet is called:
Sublimate
Fall streaks usually ____ before reaching the ground.
1 inch
On average, the water equivalent of 10 inches of snow is about ____ inches of water.