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710 terms

Medical Terminology, 2nd Ed. from Thierer & Breitbard

To help one study alongside the textbook, ISBN 0-07-301468-0. Fellow students of the online class thru CRID may appreciate that I'm going to try to keep this current with our progress for the Summer Quarter, 2009, until it is complete.
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acanth(o)
spiny; thorny
actin(o) & phot(o)
light...Similar to fluor(o)
aer(o)
air; gas...Similar to physo
alge, algesi, algio, algo
pain
amyl(o)
starch
andro
masculine
athero
plaque; fatty substance
bacill(i)
bacilli; bacteria
bacteri(o)
bacteria
bar(o)
weight; pressure
bas(o), basi(o)
base
bio- & vivi & zo(o)
life
blasto
immature cells
cac(o)
bad; ill
calc(o), calci(o)
calcium
carcin(o)
cancer
chem(o)
chemical
chlor(o)
chlorine, green
chondrio, chondro
cartilage, grainy, gritty
chore(o)
dance
chrom, chromat, chromo
color
chrono
time
chyl(o)
chyle, a digestive juice
chym(o)
chyme, semifluid production of chyme in the stomach
coni(o)
dust
crin(o)
secrete
cry(o)
cold
crypt(o)
hidden; obscure
cyan(o)
blue
cycl(o)
circle; cycle; ciliary body
cyst(o), cysti
bladder, cyst, cystic duct
cyt(o)
cell
dextr(o)
right, toward the right
dips(o)
thirst
dors(o), dorsi
back
dynamo
force; energy
echo
reflected sound
electr(o)
electricity; electric
eosin(o)
red; rosy...Similar to erythr(o)
ergo
work
erythr(o)
red, redness...Similar to eosin(o)
esthesio
sensation, perception
ethmo
ethmoid bone
etio
cause
fibr(o)
fiber
fluor(o)
light; luminous; fluorine...Similar to actin(o)
fungi
fungus
galact(o)
milk
gen(o)
producing; being born...Similar to -parous
gero, geront(o)
old age
gluco
glucose
glyco
sugars
gonio
angle
granulo
granular
gyn(o), gyne, gyneco
women
home(o), homo
same; constant
hydro(o)
hydrogen, water
hypn(o) & somn(o), somni
sleep
iatr(o)
physician; treatment
ichthy(o)
dry; scaly; fish...Similar to xer(o)
idio
distinct; unknown
immun(o)
safe; immune
kal(i)
potassium
karyo & nucle(o)
nucleus
ket(o), keton(o)
ketone; acetone
kin(o), kine & cine(o)
movement
kinesi(o), kineso
motion
kyph(o)
humpback
lact(o), lacti
mlik
latero
lateral, to one side
lepto
light, frail, thin
leuk(o)
white
lip(o)
fat
lith(o)
stone
log(o)
speech, words, thought
lys(o)
dissolution
macr(o)
large; long
medi(o)
middle; medial plane
meg(a), megal(o)
large; million
melan(o)
black; dark
mes(o)
middle; median
micr(o)
small; one-millionth; tiny
mio
smaller; less...DNCw/my(o)
morph(o)
structure; shape
narco
sleep; numbness
necr(o)
death; dying
noct(i) & nyct(o)
night
normo
normal...Similar to orth(o)
oncho, onco
tumor
orth(o)
straight; normal...Similar to norm(o)
oxy
sharp; acute; oxygen
pachy
thick
path(o)
disease...Similar to -pathy
phago
eating; devouring; swallowing
pharmaco
drugs; medicine
phon(o)
sound; voice; speech...Similar to son(o)
phot(o) & actin(o)
light...Similar to fluor(o)
physi, physio
physical; natural
physo
air; gas; growing...Similar to aer(o)
phyt(o)
plant
plasma, plasmo
formative; plasma
poikilo
varied; irregular
pseud(o)
false
pyo
pus
pyreto
fever...Similar to pyro
pyro
fever; fire; heat...Similar to pyreto
radio
radiation; x-ray; radius
salping(o) & syring(o)
tube
schisto
split...Similar to schiz(o)
schizo
split; division...Similar to schisto
scler(o)
hardness; hardening
scolio OR ankyl(o)
crooked; bent
scoto
darkness
sidero
iron
sito
food; grain...DNCw/ -trophy, -trophic
somat(o)
body
somn(o), somni & hypn(o)
sleep
sono
sound...Similar to phon(o)
spasmo
spasm
spher(o)
round; spherical
spir(o)
breath; breathe
squamo
scale; squamous
staphyl(o)
grapelike clusters
steno
narrowness
stere(o)
three-dimensional
strepto
twisted chains; streptococci
styl(o)
peg-shaped
syring(o) & salping(o)
tube
tel(o), tele(o)
distant; end; complete
terato
monster (as a malformed fetus)
therm(o)
heat
tono
tension; pressure
toop(o)
place; topical
tox(i), toxico, toxo
poison; toxin
tropho
food; nutrition...DNCw/ sito
vivi & bio- & zo(o)
life
xanth(o)
yellow
xeno
stranger
xer(o)
dry...Similar to ichthy(o)
xiph(o)
sword; xiphoid
zo(o) & bio- & vivi
life
zym(o)
fermentation; enzyme
cine(o) & kin(o), kine
movement
a- & an-
without
ab-, abs- & de-
away from
ad-
toward, to...Similar to ana-
ambi-
both, around
an- & a-
without
ana-
up, toward...Similar to ad-
ante-
before
anti- & contra-
against
apo-
derived, separate
aut(o)
self
bi-
twice, double
brachy-
short
brady-
slow
cata-
down
circum-
around
co-, col-, com-, con-, cor-
together
contra- & anti-
against
de- & ab-, abs-
away from...Similar to ex-
di-, dif-, dir-, dis-
not, separated
dia-
through
dys-
abnormal; difficult
ect(o)-
outside. Similar to exo- & extra-
end(o)- & intra-
within
epi-
over
eu-
well, good, normal
ex-
out of, away from...Similar to de-, ab-, abs-
exo-
external, on the outside...Similar to ect(o), extra-
extra-
without, outside of...Similar to ext(o), exo-
hemi- & semi-
half
hyper-
above normal; overly...Similar to ultra-
hypo-
below normal
infra-
positioned beneath
inter-
between
intra-
within
iso-
same, equal
mal-
bad; inadequate
meg(a), megal(o)
large
mes(o)
middle, median
meta-
after
micr(o)-
small, microscopic`
mon(o)-
single...Similar to uni-
multi- & poly-
many
olig(o)-
few; little, scanty
pan-, pant(o)-
all, entire
par(a)-
beside; abnormal; involving 2 parts. DNCw suffix -para
per-
through, intensely
peri-
around, about, near
pluri-
several, more
poly- & multi-
many
post-
after, following
pre-
before...Similar to pro-
pro-
before, forward...Similar to pre-
quadra-, quadri-
four
re-
again, backward
retro-
behind, backward
semi- & hemi-
half
sub-
less than, under, inferior
super-
more than, above, superior...Similar to supra-
supra-
above, over...Similar to super-
syl-, sym-, syn-, sys-
together
tachy-
fast
trans-
across, through
ultra-
beyond, excessive...Similar to hyper-
un-
not
uni-
one...Similar to mono-
-ad
toward
-algia & -dynia
pain
-asthenia
weakness
-blast
immature, forming...Similar to -plastic, -poietic
-cele
hernia
-cidal AND -cide
destroying, killing
-clasis
breaking
-clast
breaking instrument
-crine
secreting
-crit
separate
-cyte
cell
-cytosis
condition of cells
-derma
skin
-desis
binding
-dynia & -algia
pain
-ectasia AND -ectasis
expansion; dilation
-ectomy
removal of...Similar to -pheresis
-edema
swelling
-ema
condition...Similar to -lepsy, -osis
-emesis
vomiting
-emia
blood
-emic
relating to blood
-esthesia
sensation
-form
in the shape of
-gen
producing, coming to be
-genesis
production of
-genic
producing
-globin AND -globulin
protein
-gram
a recording
-graph
recording instrument
-graphy
process of recording
-iasis
pathological condition or state
-ic
pertaining to
-ics
treatment, practice, body of knowledge
-ism
condition, disease, doctrine
-itis (plural -itides)
inflammation
-kinesia & -kinesis
movement
-lepsy
condition of...Similar to -ema, -osis
-leptic
having seizures
-logist
one who practices
-logy
study, practice
-lysis
destruction of
-lytic
destroying
-malacia
softening
-mania
obsession
-megaly
enlargement
-meter
measuring device
-metry
measurement
-oid
like, resembling
-oma (plural -omata)
tumor, neoplasm
-opia & -opsia
vision
-opsy
view of
-osis (plural -oses)
condition, state, process...Similar to -lepsy, -ema
-ostomy AND -stomy
opening
-oxia
oxygen
-para
bearing...Similar to -parous. DNCw prefix para-
-paresis
slight paralysis
-parous
producing; bearing...Similar to -para AND gen(o)
-pathy
disease...Similar to path(o)-
-penia
deficiency
-pepsia
digestion
-pexy
fixation, usually done surgically
-phage, -phagia, -phagy
eating, devouring
-phasia
speaking-
-pheresis
removal...Similar to -ectomy
-phil AND -philia
attraction; affinity for
-phobia
fear-
-phonia
sound
-phoresis
carrying
-phoria
feeling; carrying
-phrenia
of the mind
-phthisis
wasting away
-phylaxis
protection
-physis
growing
-plakia
plaque
-plasia AND -plasm & -poiesis
formation...Similar to -poiesis
-plastic
forming...Similar to -blast, -poietic
-plasty
surgical repair
-plegia
paralysis
-plegic
one who is paralyzed
-pnea
breath
-poiesis & -plasia, -plasm
formation
-poietic
forming...Similar to -blast, -plastic
-poietic
one that forms
-porosis
lessening in density
-ptosis
falling down; drooping
-rrhage
discharging heavily
-rrhagia
heavy discharge
-rrhaphy
surgical suturing
-rrhea
a flowing, a flux
-rrhexis
rupture
-schisis
splitting
-scope
instrument, especially for observing and measuring
-scopy
use of an instrument for observing
-somnia
sleep
-spasm AND -stalsis
contraction
-stalsis AND -spasm
contraction
-stasis
stopping, constant
-stat
agent to maintain a state
-static
maintaining a state
-stenosis
narrowing
-stomy AND -ostomy
opening
-tome
cutting instrument, segment
-tomy
cutting operation
-trophic
nutritional...DNCw/ sito
-trophy
nutrition- ...DNCw/ sito
-tropia AND -version
turning
-tropic
turning toward
-tropy
condition of turning toward
-uria
urine
-version AND -tropia
turning
Connective tissue
holds and connects body parts. Ex: bones, ligaments, tendons
Epithelial tissue
covers internal/external body surfaces. Skin, and linings of organs
Muscle tissue
expands and contracts, allows body to move
Nervous tissue
carries messages to/from brain and spinal cord from all parts of body
Basic structure of a Cell
membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
System
group of organs working together to perform a major function
Integumentary system
skin and accessory structures: hair, nails, sweat & oil glands
Musculoskeletal system
supports body, protects organs, provides movement
Cardiovascular system
Includes heart & blood vessels, to pump and transport blood throughout body
Respiratory system
performs respiration. Includes lungs and airways
Nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Regulates most body activities, sending/receiving messages
Urinary system
Kidnes, ureters, bladder, urethra. Eliminates metabolic waste, maintains acid/base & water/salt balance. Helps regulate blood pressure
Reproductive system
Male and female, controls reproduction & heredity
Blood system
includes blood and all components
Lymphatic & Immune systems
Include lymph, gland of lymphatic system, lymphatic vessels, and defenses of immunity
Digestive system
includes all organs of digestion and excretion of waste
Endocrine system
Includes glands to secrete hormones to regulate many body activities
Sensory system
Eyes, ears, and others to support 5 senses
Dorsal cavity
Back side of body--Split into cranial & spinal cavities
Ventral cavity
Front side of body--Split into thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
Diaphragm
A muscle that divides the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Cell
smallest unit of a living structure
Inferior
below another structure
Superior
above another structure
Lateral
to the side
Medial / Midsagittal plane
middle, or near medial plane of the body. Divides body into equal left and right halves
Deep
through the surface
Superficial
on or near the surface
Proximal
near the point of attachment to the trunk
Distal
away from the point of attachment to the trunk
Supine
lying on the back, face up
Prone
lying on the abdomen, face down
Front / Coronal plane
Divides the body into anterior / posterior
Sagittal / Lateral plane
Parallel to the Medial, divides body into left /right sections
Transverse / Cross-sectional plane
Intersects body horizontally, dividing into upper / lower sections
Dorsal / Posterior
backside
Anterior / Ventral
front side
RUQ
Right Upper Quadrant: gallbladder, + parts of: intestines, liver, pancreas
RLQ
Right Lower Quadrant: appendix, + parts of: intestines, female reproductive
LUQ
Left Upper Quadrant: stomach, spleen, + parts of: intestines, liver, pancreas
LLQ
Left Lower Quadrant: parts of: intestines, female reproductive
Epigastric region
area above the stomach, near center of chest. 1/9 abdom'l-pelvic regions
Hypochondriac regions (L and R)
Just beneath the ribs on either side of Epigastric region. L: spleen. R: liver. 2-3/9 abdom'l-pelvic regions
Umbilical region
Surrounding the umbilicus (navel). 4/9 abdom'l-pelvic regions
Lumbar regions (L and R)
Near the waist. On either side of Umbilical region. 5-6/9 abdom'l-pelvic regions
Hypogastric region
The lowest center region. 7/9 abdom'l-pelvic regions
Iliac (inguinal) regions (L and R)
Near hips, on either side of the Hypogastric region. 8-9/9 abdom'l-pelvic regions
abdomin(o)
abdominal...Similar to celi(o)
acetabul(o)
cup-shaped hip socketa
den(o)
gland
adip(o)
fat
adren(o)
adrenal glands
alveol(o)
air sac, algeolus
angi(o)
vessel
aort(o)
aorta
appendic(o)
appendix
arteri(o)
artery
arteriol(o)
arteriolea
arthr(o)
joint; articulation
aur(i), auricul(o)
ear
blephar(o)
eyelid
brachi(o)
arm
bronch(o), bronchi
bronchus
bucc(o)
cheek
burs(o)
bursa...See bursa
calcane(o)
heel bone
cardi(o)
heart; esophageal opening of the stomach
carp(o)
wrist bones
celi(o)
abdomen...Similar to abdomin(o)
cephal(o)
head
cerebell(o)
cerebellum
cerebr(o)
cerebrum
cervic(o)
neck; cervix
cheil(o), chil(o) & labi(o)
lip
chir(o)
hand
chol(e), cholo
bile
chondri(o), chondr(o)
cartilage
col(o), colon(o)
colon
colp(o)
vagina
core(o)
pupil
cortic(o)
cortex
costi, costo
rib
crani(o)
cranium
cyst(i), cysto
bladder; cyst
cyt(o)
cell
dactyl(o)
fingers, toes
dent(i), dento
tooth
derm(o), derma, dermat(o)
skind
uden(o)
duodenum
encephal(o)
brain
enter(o)
intestines
episi(o)
vulva
gastr(o)
stomach
gingiv(o)
gum
gloss(o)
tongue
gnath(o)
jaw
gonad(o)
sex glands
hem(a), hemato(o), hemo
blood
hepat(o), hepatic(o)
liver
hidr(o)
sweat
histi(o), histo
tissue
hyster(o)
uterus, hysteria
ile(o)
ileum...Similar to ili(o)
ili(o)
ilium...Similar to ile(o)
inguin(o)
groin
irid(o)
iris
ischi(o)
ischium
kary(o)
nucleus
kerat(o)
cornea
labi(o) & cheil(o), chil(o)
lip
lamin(o)
lamina
lapar(o)
abdominal wall
laryng(o)
larynx
linguo
tongue
lip(o)
fat
lymph(o)
lymph
mast(o)
breast
maxill(o)
maxilla (upper jaw)
medull(o)
medulla
mening(o)
meninges
muco
mucus
acetabul(o)
acetabulum
acromi(o)
end point of the scapula
ankyl(o) OR scoli(o)
bent, crooked
arthr(o)
joint
brachi(o)
arm
calcane(o)
heel
calci(o)
calcium
carp(o)
wrist
cephal(o)
head
condyl(o)
knob, knuckle
fasci(o)
fascia
femor(o)
femur
fibr(o)
fiber
humer(o)
humerus
kyph(o)
hump; bent
leiomy(o)
smooth muscle
lumb(o)
lumbar
metacarp(o)
metacarpal
my(o)
muscle...DNCw/mio
myel(o)
spinal cord; bone marrow
oste(o)
bone
patell(o)
knee
ped(i), ped(o), pod(o)
foot
pelv(i)
pelvis
phalang(o)
finger or toe bone
pod(o), ped(i), ped(o)
foot
pub(o)
pubix
rachi(o)
spine
radi(o)
forearm bone
rhabd(o)
rod-shaped
rhabdomy(o)
striated muscle
scapul(o)
scapula
scoli(o)
curved
spondyl(o) & vertebr(o)
vertebra
stern(o)
sternum
synov(o)
synovial membrane
tars(o)
tarsus
ten(o), tend(o), tendin(o)
tendon
thorac(o)
thorax
tibi(o)
tibia
uln(o)
ulna
vertebr(o) & spondyl(o)
vertebra
A-K
above the knee (amputation)
B-K
below the knee (amputation)
C1, C2, etc
1st cervical vertebra, 2nd cervical vertebra, etc
Ca
calcium
CTS
carpal tunnel syndrome: pain and paresthesia in the hand due to repetitive motion injury of the median nerve
D1, D2, etc OR T1, T2
1st dorsal vertebra, 2nd dorsal vertebra -- now referred to as 1st thoracic vertebra, etc
DJD
degenerative joint disease
DTR
deep tendon reflex
EMG
electromyogram
Fx
fracture
IM
intramuscularly
L1, L2, etc
1st lumbar vertebra, 2nd lumbar vertebra, etc
NSAID
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
P
phosphorus
ROM
range of motion
T1, T2, etc OR D1, D2
1st thoracic vertebra, 2nd thoracic vertebra, etc
TMJ
temporomandibular joint
musculoskeletal system
includes bones, joints, and muscles
osseous tissue
what bones are made of
osteocytes
cells of bones
ossification
process of bone hardening and development of the osteocytes; needs calcium, phosphorus, and vit. D
cartilage
fetal-stage bones which are soft and flexible until ossification begins
osteoblasts
bone-forming cells
osteoclasts OR phagocytes
those which absorbs some dying bone tissue
long bones
form the arms andlegs...See diaphysis
bone head
the end of a bone often rounded, that attaches to other
skeleton
adult has 206 bones
crest
a bony ridge
process
any bony projection to which muscles and tendons attach
tubercle
a slight elevation on a bone's surface where muscles or ligaments are attached
trochanter
a bony extension near the upper end of the femur where muscle is attached
tuberosity
a large elevation on the surface of a bone for the attachments of muscles or tendons
condyle
a rounded surface protrusion at the end of a bone
fossa
a shallow pit in bone
foramen
an opening through bone for blood vessels and nerves
fissure
a deep cleft in bone
sulcus
a groove or furrow on the surface of a bone
sinus
a hollow space or cavity in a bone
Marrow
soft connective tissue. Important to production of blood cells
sutures
places at which Cranial bones join and form the skull
spinal column
consists of five sets of vertebrae
vertebra
a bone segment with a thick, cartilaginous disk separating it from the other vertebrae
fontanelle
skull of a newborn--soft spot that closes eventually
frontal bone
forehead and roof of eye socket
ethmoid bone
nasal cavity and eye orbits
parietal bone
top and upper sides of the skull
temporal bone
lower part of skull and lower sides, includes openings for ears
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
connects temporal bone to mandible (lower jawbone)
mastoid process
round extension behind the temporal bone
styloid process
peg-shaped protrusion from a bone, as one that extends down from the temporal bone
occipital bone
back and base of skull
foramen magnum
opening in occipital bone through which spinal cord passes
sphenoid bone
base of the cranium holding together the frontal, occipital, and ethmoid bones
sella turcica
depression in the sphenoid bone that holds the pituitary gland
frontal sinuses
cavities above the eyes
sphenoid sinus
cavity above and behind the nose
ethmoid sinuses
small sinuses at the side of the nasal cavity
maxillary sinuses
cavities on either side of the nasal cavity
compact bone
hard bone with a tightly woven structure
diaphysis
long middle section of a long bone; shaft
metaphysis
section of a long bone between the epiphysis and diaphysis
epiphyseal
cartilaginous tissue that is replaced during growth years, eventually calcifies and disappears when growth stops
articular cartilage
cartilage at a joint
cancellous bone
spongy bone with a latticelike structure
medullary cavity
soft center cavity in bone that often holds marrow
endosteum
lining of the medullary cavity
periosteum
fibrous membrane covering the surface of bone
nasal bones
facial bone that forms the nose bridge
lacrimal bones
holds the lacrimal gland and the canals for the tear ducts
mandibular bone or mandible
lower jawbone and holds the sockets for the lower teeth
maxillary bones
upper jawbone and sockets for the upper teeth
vomer
nasal septum
zygomatic bones
bones that shape the cheek
palatine bone
forms the nasal cavity and the hard palate
acromion
part of the scapula that connects to the clavicle
clavicle
curved bone of the shoulder that joins to the scapula; collar bone
sternum
long, flat bone that forms the midline of the anterior of the thorax
thorax
part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen; chest
scapula
large flat bone that forms the shoulder blade
pelvic girdle
hip bones
true ribs
(7) upper ribs of the chest that attach to the sternum
intervertebral OR cartilaginous disk
thick, circular mass of cartilage between the vertebrae of the spinal column
cartilaginous OR intervertebral disk
thick, circular mass of cartilage between the vertebrae of the spinal column
nucleus pulposus
fibrous mass in the center portion of the intervertebral disk
neural canal
space through which the spinal cord passes
sacrum
next-to-last spinal vertebra made up of (5) fused bones; vertebra that forms part of the pelvis
coccyx
the tailbone
ilium
wide portion of the hip bone
ischium
(1) of three fused bones that form the pelvic girdle
pubes
anteroinferior portion of the hip bone
pubic symphysis
joint between the two pubic bones
humerus
attaches to the scapula and clavicle
ulna
(2) lower arm bones
olecranon OR elbow
bony protrusion on the ulna
radius
bone between the elbow and wrist
carpus or wrist
attached to the radius and palm
metacarpals
(5) palm bones that radiate to fingers
phalanges (sing. phalanx)
finger bones
acetabulum
depression in hip bone into which thigh fits
femur
thigh bone
tibia OR shin
one of the two bones of the lower leg
fibula
(1) of the (2) bones of the lower leg
patella
kneecap
malleoli
bony protrusions at the bottom of the lower leg
tarsal bones
help form the ankle, tarsus or instep, and calcaneus or heel
metatarsals
bones that connect the tarsal bones to the phalanges or toe bones
articulation
point at which two bones join together to allow movement
atlas
1st cervical vertebra
axis
2nd cervical vertebra
bursa (pl. bursae)
sac lined with a synovial membrane that fills the spaces between tendons and joints
calcaneus
heel bone
fascia (pl. fasciae)
sheet of fibrous tissue that encloses muscles
origin
point at which muscles attach to stationary bone
insertion
point at which a muscle attaches to a movable bone
involuntary muscle OR smooth OR visceral
muscle not movable at will
voluntary OR striated muscle
muscle that can be contracted at will
flexion
the bending of a limb
extension
the straightening of a limb
rotation
the circular movement of a part, such as the neck
abduction
movement away from the body
adduction
movement toward the body
supination
a turning up, as of the hand
pronation
a turning down, as of the hand
dorsiflexion
a bending Up, as of the ankle
plantar flexion
a bending Down, as of the ankle
plantar flexion
Bending the sole of the foot downward toward the ground.
orthopedist
physician who examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders of the musculoskeletal system
osteopath
physician who combines manipulative treatment with conventional therapeutic measures
arthrography
radiography of a joint
arthroscopy
examination with an instrument that explores the interior of a joint
diskography
radiographic image of an intervertebral disk by injection of a contrast medium into the center of the disk
myelography
radiographic imaging of the spinal cord
electromyogram
a graphic image of muscular action using electrical currents
bone scan
radiographic or nuclear medicine image of a bone
chiropractor
health care professional who works to align the spinal column so as to treat certain ailments
densitometer
device that measures bone density using light and x-rays
diskography
radiographic image of an intervertebral disk by injection of a contrast medium into the center of the disk
goniometer
instrument that measures angles or range of motion in a joint
myelography
radiographic imaging of the spinal cord
podiatrist
medical specialist who examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders of the foot
rheumatoid factor test
used to detect rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatologist
physician who examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders of the joints and musculoskeletal system
serum calcium
test for calcium in the blood
serum creatine phosphokinase
enzyme active in muscle contraction; usually phosphokinase is elevated after a myocardial infarction and in the presence of other degenerative muscle diseases
serum phosphorus
test for phosphorus in the blood
Tinel's sign
"Pins and needles" sensation felt when an injured nerve site is tapped
uric acid test
test for acid content in urine; elevated levels may indicate gout
anklylosis
stiffening of a joint, especially as a result of disease
arthralgia
severe joint pain
arthritis
any of various conditions involving joint inflammation
atrophy
wasting away of tissue, organs, cells, usu. from disease or loss of blood supply
bony necrosis
death of portions of bone
bunion
an inflamed bursa at the foot joint, between big the toe and first metatarsal bone
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
calcar
spur
chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
closed fracture
no open skin wound
Colles' fracture
at lower end of the radius
comminuted fracture
shattered bones
complex fracture
part of the bone displaced
complicated fracture
involves extensive soft tissue injury
compound fracture
open skin wound; open fracture...See 'open fracture'
compression fracture
(1) or more vertebrae, from compression of the space between the vertebrae
contracture
extreme resistance to stretching of a muscle
crepitation, crepitus
noise made by rubbing together of bones
degenerative arthritis
arthritis with erosion of the cartilage...Similar to osteoarthritis
dislocation
movement of a joint out of its normal position, resulting from injury or sudden, strenuous mvmt
dystonia
abnormal tone in tissues
epiphysitis
inflammation of the epiphysis (the rounded end of a long bone)
exostosis
abnormal growth capped with cartilage
flaccid
without tone; relaxed
fracture
a break, esp. in a bone
gouty arthritis, gout
inflammation of joints, present in gout; usu. caused by uric acid crystals
greenstick fracture
twisting or bending of bone, But NO break; usu. happens to children
hairline fracture
no bone separation or fragmentation
herniated disk
protrusion of an invertebral disk into the neural canal
hypertrophy
abnormal increase as in muscle size
hypotonia
abnormally reduced muscle tension
impacted fracture
one fragment is driven into the tissue of another part of the fracture
incomplete fracture
does not go entirely through the bone
kyphosis
abnormal posterior spine curvature (humpback)
leiomyoma
benign tumor of smooth muscle
leimyosarcoma
malignant tumor of smooth muscle
lordosis
abnormal anterior spine curvature (swayback)
muscular dystrophy
progressive degenerative disorder affecting musculoskeletal system, and later, other organs
myalgia & myodynia
muscle pain
myeloma
bone marrow tumor
myodynia & myalgia
muscle pain
myoma
benign muscle tumor
myositis
inflammation of a muscle
open fracture
open skin wound...See 'compound fracture'
ostealgia & osteodynia
bone pain
osteoarthritis
arthritis with loss of cartilage...See 'degenerative arthritis'
osteodynia & ostealgia
bone pain
osteoma
benign bone tumor, usu. on skull or mandible
osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone marrow and surrounding bone
osteoporosis
degenerative thinning of bone
osteosarcoma
malignant tumor of bone
pathological fracture
occurs at site of already-damaged bone
phantom limb; phantom pain
pain felt in paralyzed or amputated limb
physical therapy
movement therapy to restore areas of damage
podagra
pain in big toe, often assoc. with gout
rhabdomyoma
benign tumor in striated muscle
rhabdomyosarcoma
malignant tumor in striated muscle
rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disorder affecting connective tissue
rickets
disease of skeletal system, usu. from lack of Vit. D
rigidity
stiffness...Similar to rigor
rigor
stiffening...Similar to rigidity
sciatica
lower back pain, usu. radiating down the leg
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of spinal column
sequestrum
piece of dead tissue or bone separated from surrounding area
simple fracture
no open skin wound
spasm
sudden, involuntary muscle contraction
spastic
tending to have spasms
spina bifida
congenital defect with deformity of spinal column
spinal curvature
abnormal curvature of spine
spondylolisthesis
degenerative condition: a vertebra misaligns with one below; "slipped disk"
spondylolysis
degenerative condition of moving part of vertebra
sprain
injury to ligament
spur
bony projection growing out of bone; calcar
strain
injury to muscle after improper or over-use
subluxation
partial dislocation, as between joint surfaces
talipes calcaneus
deformity of hell, resulting from weakened calf muscles
talipes valgus
foot deformity, characterized by eversion (duck feet)
talipes varus
foot deformity, characterized by inversion (pigeon toe)
tendinitis OR tendonitis
inflammation of a tendon
tetany
painfully long muscle contraction
tremor
abnormal, repetitive muscle contractions