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26 terms

CHM 1111 Chapter 3-1 definitions

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chemical bonds
forces that hold together atoms
ionic bonds
electrostatic bonds - charge interactions
covalent bonds
characterized by electron sharing
molecules
groups of atoms held together by chemical bonds
molecular formula
formula that tells only what is present
organic compounds
carbon-based compounds
inorganic compounds
compounds without carbon
diatomic molecule
molecule with two atoms of the same type (H, halogens)
polyatomic molecule
molecule with many atoms of the same type (S, P)
structural formula
formula that gives some information regarding connectivity
ions
atoms of molecules that carry a charge
cations
positively-charged ions
anions
negatively-charged ions
polyatomic ions
covalently-bonded atoms that carry a charge
crystal lattice
bonding form characteristic of ionic compounds
empirical formula
smallest ratio of elements to one another
hydrates
molecules with loosely-bound waters
hydrocarbons
molecules that contain only hydrogen and carbon
alkanes
contain only single bonds
alkenes
contain at least one double bond
alkynes
contain at least one triple bond
cyclic
joined in a ring
alcohol
organic molecule containing an -OH functional group
acids
molecules that donate H+ ions to solution
bases
molecules that donate OH- (hydroxide) ions to solution
organic acids
organic molecules that contain a -COOH functional group