31 terms

AP Biology Enzyme Vocab

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Metabolism
Totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manages the material and energy resources of an organism
Dehydration Synthesis
Process by which polymers are built by the removal of a water molecule
Anabolic Reactions
Metabolic reaction that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from smaller, simpler molecules
Hydrolysis
Process by which polymers are broken down by the addition of a water molecule
Catabolic Reactions
Metabolic reaction that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler molecules
Exergonic Reaction
Spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy
Endergonic Reaction
Nonspontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from it's surroundings
Gibbs Free Energy
Portion of a biological system's energy that can perform when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system
Activation Energy
Amount of energy the reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction can start
Catalyst
Chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Enzyme
Macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction; most often are proteins
Substrate
Reactant on which an enzyme works
Reactant
Starting material in a chemical reaction
Product
Material resulting from a chemical reaction
Active Site
Specific region of an enzyme that binds to the substrate and that forms the pocket in which catalysis occurs
Sucrase
Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose into its two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose
Proteases
Enzyme that digests proteins by hydrolysis
Lipases
Enzyme the body uses to break down fats so that they can be absorbed in the intestines
DNA Polymerase
Enzyme that catalyses the elongation of new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of an existing chain
Pepsin
Enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins; synthesized as an inactive precursor form, pepsinogen
Induced Fit
Caused by the entry of the substrate, the change in the shape of an active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate
Conformational Change
Change in the shape of a protein
Inhibitors
Decrease enzyme activity
Activators
Increase enzyme activity
Cofactors
Any non protein molecule or ion that that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme; can be bound permanently or loosely bound to the enzyme
Coenzyme
Organic molecule that serves as a cofactor in metabolic reactions
Competitive Inhibition
Substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate, whose structure it mimics
Noncompetitive Inhibition
Substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing the enzyme's shape so that the active site no longer effectively catalyzes the conversion of a substrate to a produc
Irreversible Inhibition
Permanent change to the shape of an enzyme due to binding of a regulatory molecule to the active site
Feedback Inhibition
Method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathwa
Allosteric Regulation
Binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of a protein at another site