Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 14: Groupthink
Terms in this set (22)
Who created 'Groupthink'?
What is 'Groupthink'?
A way of deliberating that group members use when their desire for unanimity overrides their motivation to assess all plans of action.
Why does 'Groupthink' occur?
-Group members may want all members of the group to agree more than they want to find the best solution or make the best decision.
not a good thing
-Harmony is the goal; group cohesiveness becomes more important than the effectiveness of the group.
Which groups are more susceptible to 'Groupthink'?
-Small group communication (at least 3 people)
-Problem-solving and task-oriented groups are more susceptible.
How does 'Groupthink' affect small groups?
-It affects decision making, information sharing, role definition, education, socializing and relating to systems outside the group unit.
What are common examples of 'Groupthink'?
-The U.S. Navy's lack of preparation at Pearl Harbor
-The Bay of Pigs invasion
-The Vietnam War
What are the assumptions of 'Groupthink'?
-Conditions in groups promote high cohesiveness
-Group problem solving is primarily a unified process
-Groups and decision making are complex
Assumption of 'Groupthink': Conditions in groups promote high cohesiveness
-Cohesiveness is the extent to which group members are willing to work together.
-Cohesion comes from a group's attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior
-Cohesion is easy to recognize but hard to define
Assumption of 'Groupthink': Group problem-solving is primarily a unified process
-People don't like to disrupt the decision-making process
-Group members don't want to get along
-Affiliate restraints (members holding back their input rather than facing possible rejection) threaten the problem-solving process
-Because group members fear rejection, they will attach greater importance to preserving the group than to the issue at hand
Assumption of 'Groupthink': Groups and group decision making are complex
-Small groups need to understand the available and be able to distinguish among these available options.
-Understanding the task at hand and people involved is important
-The presence of other people affects us and knowing that these other people may be judging our contributions promotes task accomplishment
-Group demographics play an important role in the dynamics of the group (hierarchy)
Antecedent conditions of 'Groupthink'
-High cohesiveness of the decision-making group
-Specific structural characteristics of the environment surrounding the group affect the decision making process
-Stressful internal and external characteristics place on certain group members may increase the potential for Groupthink to occur
Antecedent of 'Groupthink': High cohesiveness of the decision-making group
-Cohesion is desirable but not dangerous
-Cohesion may lead to intense pressure to conform to group standards and often does lead to group members conforming with one another
-Cohesion does not automatically lead to Groupthink but it makes a group more vulnerable when it is at the forefront of group decision making.
Antecedent of 'Groupthink': Specific structural characteristics of the environment surrounding the group affect the decision making process
-Lack of impartial leadership (members already know what the leader wants and go with it)
-Failure to establish clear decision-making procedures can lead to faulty decision making
Antecedent of 'Groupthink': Stressful internal and external characteristics placed on certain group members may increase the potential for Groupthink to occur
-Issues and events inside and outside the group can cause people to break down
-The pressure to find a solution also causes members to seek moral support from other members
Symptoms of 'Groupthink'
-Janis identifies three categories of systems of Groupthink that can be present before groups make final decisions or come to a consensus about an issue:
-Closemindedness of the group
- Pressure toward Uniformity
Symptoms of 'Groupthink' from 'Overestimation':
"The erroneous belief that the group is more than it actually is (more powerful or effective)
-Illusion of invulnerability: the group believes it can overcome any obstacle
-Inherent morality: the group members are thoughtful, good people, so their decisions will be good as well
Symptoms of 'Groupthink' from 'Closemindendess of the group':
"The willingness of the group to ignore differences in people and (outside) warnings about group decisions"
-Out-group stereotypes: groups hold adversarial stereotypes about non-members and think that group decisions cannot be overruled or sabotaged.
-Collective rationalization: the group ignores warnings that would cause others to reconsider decisions made
Symptoms of 'Groupthink' from 'Pressure toward Uniformity':
"Going along to get along"
-Self-censorship: minimizing personal doubts or counterarguments
-Illusion of unanimity: all members are in complete agreement
-Self-appointed mudguards: those who protect the group from adverse (outside) info
-Pressure on dissenters: individuals who express contrary views are "encouraged" to comply with the group
What other contexts could 'Groupthink' be applicable?
Ways to prevent 'Groupthink'
-Looking at the different objectives group members want to achieve
-Developing those objectives
-Exploring the entire range of objectives
-Analyzing each objective on its own
-Having a contingency plan
What are the four general recommendations for groups?
-Groups should establish standards for oversight and control (the devil's advocate)
-Encourage members to voice concerns and act as whistle-blowers when the need arises
-Allow and encourage individual objections
-Work to balance consensus and majority so everyone has a voice int he decision making process
Critique of 'Groupthink'
-Heurism: applicable to many contexts and contributes to the understanding of group behavior
-Scope: aimed solely at groups so many consider it narrowly focused
-Testability: issues with validity; doesn't directly address self-esteem in the theory
-Test of Time: still used today.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 14: Groupthink
Com Theory Chapter 16 - Organizational Culture The…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Oral Comm Final
CA 275 Exam 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ch. 11: Social Exchange Theory
Ch. 9: Social Penetration Theory
Ch. 8: Uncertainty Reduction Theory
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Chapter 14 Oxygenation
Sociology You May Ask Yourself 4th Edition Chap 12…