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APHG Unit 5
Terms in this set (35)
approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicieds, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
the deliberate raising of crops and tending of livestock in order to produce food, feed, and fiber
primary economic activities
Economic activities that involve the extraction of natural resources
secondary economic activities
economic activities concerned with the processing of raw materials
tertiary economic activities
activities that support the exchange of goods and that bring together consumers and producers of goods; the service industry
hunting and gathering
the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
Carl Sauer's land of plenty hypothesis
argued that agriculture began in "lands of plenty" because humans were able to settle in these areas for an extended period of time while hunting and gathering and, during that time, experiment with seed domestication
First Agricultural Revolution
Began in Southwest Asia 10,000 years ago; occurred as a result of plant domestication and animal domestication; led to the beginning of subsistence agriculture and permanent settlement of humans
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
system in which farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs
slash and burn agriculture
A form of shifting cultivation in which fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Second Agricultural Revolution
Began in Western Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. Farmers dramatically increased output through new technologies and consolidation of fields. Led to the beginning commercial agriculture and allowed people to move to cities to begin industrial jobs.
von Thunen model
Agricultural land-use model that argues that, when farming for commercial purposes, where farmers locate relative to the central city/market depends on cost of land and the cost of transportation to market
Beginning in the 1960s, the diffusion of high-yield crops to less developed countries; resulted in a dramatic increase in grain production in those countries
genetically modified organisms
An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means; also known as a transgenic organism
a method of land survey used to determine land ownership and property lines
township and range survey system
also called the rectangular or grid survey system; property lines determined based on a grid system that creates 1-square mile sections
metes and bounds survey system
uses natural features, such as rivers or trees, to demarcate irregular parcels of land
long-lot survey system
divides land into narrow parcels stretching back fro rivers, roads, or canals
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages; typically found in areas where farming is highly mechanized
a rural settlement pattern characterized by homes grouped in clusters; most common settlement pattern in the world
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
dependence on a single agricultural crop
crops produced in large quantities to be sold or traded; often began to be grown in LDCs during colonization
Agricultural production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Most plantations were established in LDCs during colonization.
Crops that are not essential to human survival and are often sold at a high price.
The raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other byproducts such as leather and wool
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry (from growing the animals to processing them for the grocery store), usually through ownership by large corporations.
A form of agriculture in which yields are very high relative to the amount of land cultivated
An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful.
Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods; requires very little human labor.
Farming system in which the farmer remains settled in one place
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
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