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Invitation to the Lifespan Ch 2
2nd edition Kathleen Stassen Berger
Terms in this set (49)
The single cell that is formed from the fusing of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum
The molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins.
One of the 46 molecules of DNA (in 23 pairs) that each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes.
A small section of a chromosome; the basic unit for the transmission of heredity. Consists of a string of chemicals that provide instructions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins.
A reproductive cell; that is, a sperm or an ovum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to form a zygote.
Any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular trait can occur.
An organism's entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential.
The observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits.
The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species.
A 23rd chromosome pair that consists of two X-shaped chromosomes, one each from the mother and the father; the zygote becoming a female.
A 23rd chromosome pair that consists of an X-shaped chromosome from the mother and a Y-shaped chromosome from the father; the zygote becoming a male.
Twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development; identical twins.
Twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time; fraternal twins.
A gene that adds something to some aspect of the phenotype. Its contribution depends on additions from the other genes, which may come from either the same or the other parent.
The interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele (the dominant gene) more than that of the other (the recessive gene).
A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype. Such an unexpressed gene occurs in half the carrier's gametes and thus is passed on to half the carrier's children, who will most likely be carriers, too. Generally, the characteristic appears in the phenotype only when such a gene is inherited from both parents.
A gene carried on the X chromosome. If a male inherits an X-linked recessive trait from his mother, he expresses that trait because the Y from his father has no counteracting gene. Females are more likely to be carriers of X-linked traits but are less likely to express them.
The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation.
The stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eighth week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop.
The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the fetus grows in size and matures in functioning.
Cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form
The process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the tissue that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop.
The name for a developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception.
The name for a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth.
An image of a fetus (or an internal organ) produced by using high frequency sound waves. (Also called sonogram.)
age of viability
The age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus may survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available.
A quick assessment of a newborn's body functioning. The baby's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, color, and reflexes are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice-at one minute and five minutes after birth-and each time the total of all five scores is compared with the ideal score of 10 (which is rarely attained).
cesarean section (c-section)
A surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina.
A woman who helps with the birth process. Doulas are trained to offer support to new mothers, including massage and suggestions for breastfeeding positions.
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
A test often administered to newborns that measures responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes.
An unlearned, involuntary action or movement in response to a stimulus; occurs without conscious thought.
Symptoms of pregnacy and birth experienced by fathers.
The sadness and inadequacy felt by some new mothers in the days and weeks after giving birth.
The strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn.
A child-care technique in which a new mother holds the baby between her breasts, like a kangaroo that carries her immature newborn in a pouch on her abdomen.
A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46, with three rather than two chromosomes at the 21st position. People with this disorder typically have distinctive characteristics, including unusual facial features (thick tongue, round face, slanted eyes) heart abnormalities, and language difficulties; also called trisomy-21.
Any agent or condition, including viruses, drugs, and chemicals, that can impair prenatal development, resulting in birth defects of complications.
Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning.
A disorder that results from damage to the brain's motor centers. People with cerebral palsy have difficulty with muscle control, so their speech and/or body movements are impaired.
A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can cause brain damage or death.
A situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level (the threshold).
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and intellectual disabilities, that may occur in the child of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant.
low birthweight (LBW)
A body weight at birth of less than 5 1/2 pounds (2,500 grams).
very low birthweight (VLBW)
A body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces (1,500 grams).
extremely low birthweight (ELBW)
A body weight at birth of less than 2 pounds, 3 ounces (1,000 grams).
A birthday that occurs three or more weeks before the full 38 weeks of the typical pregnancy have elapsed-that is, at 35 or fewer weeks after conception.
small for gestational age (SGA)
Having a body weight at birth that is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception.For example, a 5-pound (2,265-gram) new-born is considered this if born on time but not this if born two months early.
The surprising discovery that, although low SES usually correlated with poor health, this is not true for Hispanics in the United States. For example, when compared with the U.S. average LBW rate, Hispanic newborns are less often of low birthweight.
A statistic that indicated what percentage of gthe variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era, can be traced to genes.
What happens when Broca's area is damaged?
A baby who first habituates to a green circle and then recovers to a blue circle..
Hal remarks, "Asian people look so much alike." After reading the text, Elise should explain that:
Continuing care facilities are usually homogeneous and may be organized by private or religious organizations.
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