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made up of C, H, and O; primary fuel source for human source; provides 4 kcal/g; meets immediate energy needs (quick fix); excess stored as glycogen


converted by liver from excess carbohydrate; stored in liver and muscles; serves as back up fuel source; converted to glucose when needed due to increased intake; if full, converted to triglycerides and stored as fat

recommended intake of carbohydrates

45-65% of daily caloric intake

simple carbohydrates

sugars with a simple structure of one or two single-sugar units


single sugar unit; building blocks of all carbohydrates; no need to be broken down, ready to use; mouth is used to mechanically break down food; stomach use HCl that changes pepsinogen to active enzyme pepsin;

trypsin, thymotripsin, carbonyxpepsidase

three enzymes produced by pancreas to break down proteins even further, therefore allowing for the absorption of carbohydrates; after production, they travel to the liver through blood circulation


dextrose; form of sugar in the blood; provides major fuel for the body's cells; ex. corn syrup that is used in processed foods


sweetest of simple sugars; found in fruit and honey (the riper the fruit, the sweeter); ex. high fructose corn syrup


component of milk sugar; milk sugar must be broken down in order to received


double sugar unit; sucrose, lactose, maltose


glucose+fructose; most important disaccharide found in foods; ex. table sugar, brown sugar, molasses


glucose+galactose; ex. milk sugar


glucose+glucose; from starch digestion; synthecially derived form used in processed foods

complex carbohydrates

long, complex chains of sugar; take longer to break down; provide energy source for a longer time


starch; glycogen


begins breaking down in the mouth; ex. legumes, grains and veggies; can increase how quickly broken down by grinding, mashing or cooking


animal starch; stored in animal muscles; found in very small amounts in meat; insignificant amount compared to rest of our diet (bulk of complex carbs comes from other sources)

dietary fiber

body lacks enzymes necessary to digest; provides bulk; improves GI motility; binds with cholesterol, decreases cholesterol levels; three types - cellulose, lignin, non-cellulose; ex. legumes, whole grains (unprocessed are better), fruits and vegetables in natural form (unprocessed with peeling0

soluble fiber

fiber that dissolves in water; gums, mucilages, algal polysaccharides, most pectins


plant secretions and seeds


along with gums, these are also plant secretions and seeds

most pectins

intercellular plant material such as in apples

insoluble fiber

fiber that does not dissolve in water; cellul


contains plant cell walls; stalks and leafs


only noncarbohydrate type of dietary fiber; woody parts of some plants; ex. strawberry seeds, broccoli stems


plant cell walls; bran and whole grains

recommended fiber intake

25-35 g per day; increase water intake as you increase fiber; increasing too rapidly can cause gas and bloating

food sources of carbohydrates

fruit, vegetables and grains best; nuts and milk also good; whole and unprocessed best becasue contain more fiber, more vitamins, and more minerals; sugar alcohols often replace sugars in processed food; too much sugar alcohol can cause diarrhea; sugar substitutes frequently used to create diet and low carb alternatives (no calories or nutrients; adding another chemical)


glycerides; composed of C,H and O; used for fuel if carbs are gone; concentrated fuel source; provides 9 kcal/g; not easily broken down; produces ketones, which are an acidic byproduct that interferes with acid-base balance; greasy, there insoluble; added to increase flavor; necessary to carry fat soluble vitamins; decreasing intake decreases risk of cancer and coronary artery disease; insulation to vital organs, temperature regulator, inflammation of membranes; primary digestion center of fat is small intestine

recommended intake of fat

20-35% daily calories; no more than 1/3 saturated

conversion of excess fat

converted to glucose; necessary for energy; can be stored as glycogen if stores are not full, otherwise converted to triglycerides and stored as fat


releases bile by stimulating release of hormone cholecystokinin; breaks fat down into smaller particles


fats and related compounds; chemical group name for organic substances of a fatty nature (fats, oils, waxes)


most fats in food; three fatty acids attached to glycerol base; body can make from excess sugar; blood level <100

fatty acids

building blocks of fat; short, medium and long chains

saturated fat

contains as much H as it can hold; dense, firm and solid; made up of animal fats (lard, beef fat, egg yolk, dairy fat); contained in tropical oils (cocunut and palm)

unsaturated fat

not full of H, so it can hold more; less heavy and less dense; most are from plant sources

monounsaturated fat

only one area is not full of H (olives, olive oil, peanuts, most nuts, avocados, canola oil)

polyunsaturated fat

more than one are is free to take H; safflower oil, cottonseed oil, corn oil, soybean oil, walnuts; salmon mackerel, trout

Olive Oil

love interest of both Popeye and Bluto; always the center of that conflict

essential fatty acids

required fatty acids; abscence would cause disease; body cannot manufacture, therefore it must be obtained in the diet; if total calorie intake is <10% fata, essential fatty acid needs are not met

linoleic acid

found in polyunsaturated vegetable oils; Omega 6

linolenic acid

Omega 3; found in milk, soy beans and flax seeds


comic strip created in the 1950s by cartoonist Charles Schultz; most famous character is beagle named Snoopy

Omega 3 and 6

both are needed for blood clotting, tissue strength, cholesterol metabolism, muscle tone, heart action


combination of fat and protein; fat wrapped in a layer of protein; used to transport through the bloodstream because water and fat don't mix

low density lipoproteins

LDL; transports cholesterol to cells; known as bad cholesterol; want LDL to be lower; normal <130; replacing fat in the diet with monounsaturated is associated with lowering the LDL

high density lipoproteins

HDL; transports cholestero to liver, away from cells; good cholesterol; want HDL to be higher, >35


found in animal foods, not plant foods; necessary for metabolism; no dietary reference intake because body can make it if we don't eat it; patients that consume 50% of daily calories from fat are at risk for obesitym elevated blood fats and diabetes; recommendation is for everyone to decrease cholesterol intake; total cholesterol <200


not an actual fat

visible fats

fat that can be seen; oil on top of soup, grease in a skillet, fat in a steak

invisible fats

found in cake, chicken breasts (check labels)

animal fats

most are saturated; meat, poulty, dairy and egg yolks; choose leanest sources

plant fats

most are unsaturated; vegetable oils, avocados, nuts)

hydrogenated fats

trans fats; hydrogenation - to add H; take unsatured fat and make it saturated; changes the shape of the molecule creating trans fats; associated with increase serum-lipid levels, and increase risk of heart disease, diabete mellitus, and stroke; used in many processed foods (margarine, etc.); labelly reads "partially hyderogenated oils".


composed of C,H,O and N; absorbed as amino acids and peptides; necessary for tissue building, repair and maintenance; only used for energy in abscence of carbohydrates and fats; provides 4 kcal/g; tissue proteins, plasma proteins, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, Hgb, lipoproteins are all made from proteins; excess can be converted to glucose as needed for energy; can be stored as glycogen if stores are not full, otherwise converted to triglycerides and stored as fat; consuming too much also means more work for the kidneys due to nitrogenous wastes being excreted by urine; needs are increased for growth, illness, injury etc.

amino acids

building blocks of all proteins; 20 common which are all needed; body can only make 11 of them

recommended intake of proteins

10-35% of daily calories

low protein foods

whole grains, fruit, thin-sliced meat, oils such as olive and flaxseed

classes of amino acids

indispensable (essential); dispensable (non-essential); conditionally indispensable

indispensable (essential) amino acids

nine that the body cannot make; must come from diet, mostly animal products

dispensable (non-essential) amino acids

five that body can make it sufficient quantities; must have adequate diet

conditionally indispensable

other six amino six that body can make; body can make, but cannot make enough if demands are high; if demands are high, due to illness, injury etc, must be consumed in diet

nitrogen balance

protein is consumed in diet; broken down into amino acids; reconfigured to make protein needed by body (tissues, enzymes, etc);


to break down; dividing proteins into individual amino acids


building; using amino acids to make proteins


removing the N from an amino acid; body converts N to ammonia; excreted as urea in urine; helps to maintain nitrogen balance

process of nitrogen balance

1 g of N is excreted for every 6.25 g of protein eaten

positive nitrogen balance

take in more N than is excreted; increased tissue building or repair; dietary protein needs are being met; periods of rapid growth, pregnancy or lactation, illness, injury or history of malnourishment

negative nitrogen balance

take is less N than excreted; body tissue breaking down, using muscle or bone as a source of protein; dietary protein needs are not being met; illness or injury and not eating; period of growth or pregnancy and trying to diet; vegetarian not consuming enough protein; malnourishment

complete food source

contain all 9 essential amino acids in sufficient quantity to meet needs; includes high biologic protein; contains essential amino acids in quantity similar to human needs; animal proteins (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt); soy protein

incomplete food source

lack 1 or more of 9 essential amino acids; considered low biologic value; plant proteins (legumes, nuts, seeds, small amount in whole grains and veggies)

complimentary food source

incomplete proteins paired together; together get all 9 essential amino acids in a sufficient quantity; legumes+grains; legumes+seeds; grains+dairy

lacto vegetarian

eats dairy

ovo vegetarian

eats eggs

lactoovo vegetariain

eats dairy and eggs


eat only plant foods

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