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77 terms

Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins

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carbohydrates
made up of C, H, and O; primary fuel source for human source; provides 4 kcal/g; meets immediate energy needs (quick fix); excess stored as glycogen
glycogen
converted by liver from excess carbohydrate; stored in liver and muscles; serves as back up fuel source; converted to glucose when needed due to increased intake; if full, converted to triglycerides and stored as fat
recommended intake of carbohydrates
45-65% of daily caloric intake
simple carbohydrates
sugars with a simple structure of one or two single-sugar units
monosaccharides
single sugar unit; building blocks of all carbohydrates; no need to be broken down, ready to use; mouth is used to mechanically break down food; stomach use HCl that changes pepsinogen to active enzyme pepsin;
trypsin, thymotripsin, carbonyxpepsidase
three enzymes produced by pancreas to break down proteins even further, therefore allowing for the absorption of carbohydrates; after production, they travel to the liver through blood circulation
glucose
dextrose; form of sugar in the blood; provides major fuel for the body's cells; ex. corn syrup that is used in processed foods
fructose
sweetest of simple sugars; found in fruit and honey (the riper the fruit, the sweeter); ex. high fructose corn syrup
galactose
component of milk sugar; milk sugar must be broken down in order to received
disaccharides
double sugar unit; sucrose, lactose, maltose
sucrose
glucose+fructose; most important disaccharide found in foods; ex. table sugar, brown sugar, molasses
lactose
glucose+galactose; ex. milk sugar
maltose
glucose+glucose; from starch digestion; synthecially derived form used in processed foods
complex carbohydrates
long, complex chains of sugar; take longer to break down; provide energy source for a longer time
polysaccharides
starch; glycogen
starch
begins breaking down in the mouth; ex. legumes, grains and veggies; can increase how quickly broken down by grinding, mashing or cooking
glycogen
animal starch; stored in animal muscles; found in very small amounts in meat; insignificant amount compared to rest of our diet (bulk of complex carbs comes from other sources)
dietary fiber
body lacks enzymes necessary to digest; provides bulk; improves GI motility; binds with cholesterol, decreases cholesterol levels; three types - cellulose, lignin, non-cellulose; ex. legumes, whole grains (unprocessed are better), fruits and vegetables in natural form (unprocessed with peeling0
soluble fiber
fiber that dissolves in water; gums, mucilages, algal polysaccharides, most pectins
gums
plant secretions and seeds
mucilages
along with gums, these are also plant secretions and seeds
most pectins
intercellular plant material such as in apples
insoluble fiber
fiber that does not dissolve in water; cellul
cellulose
contains plant cell walls; stalks and leafs
lignin
only noncarbohydrate type of dietary fiber; woody parts of some plants; ex. strawberry seeds, broccoli stems
hemicellulose
plant cell walls; bran and whole grains
recommended fiber intake
25-35 g per day; increase water intake as you increase fiber; increasing too rapidly can cause gas and bloating
food sources of carbohydrates
fruit, vegetables and grains best; nuts and milk also good; whole and unprocessed best becasue contain more fiber, more vitamins, and more minerals; sugar alcohols often replace sugars in processed food; too much sugar alcohol can cause diarrhea; sugar substitutes frequently used to create diet and low carb alternatives (no calories or nutrients; adding another chemical)
fats
glycerides; composed of C,H and O; used for fuel if carbs are gone; concentrated fuel source; provides 9 kcal/g; not easily broken down; produces ketones, which are an acidic byproduct that interferes with acid-base balance; greasy, there insoluble; added to increase flavor; necessary to carry fat soluble vitamins; decreasing intake decreases risk of cancer and coronary artery disease; insulation to vital organs, temperature regulator, inflammation of membranes; primary digestion center of fat is small intestine
recommended intake of fat
20-35% daily calories; no more than 1/3 saturated
conversion of excess fat
converted to glucose; necessary for energy; can be stored as glycogen if stores are not full, otherwise converted to triglycerides and stored as fat
gallbladder
releases bile by stimulating release of hormone cholecystokinin; breaks fat down into smaller particles
lipids
fats and related compounds; chemical group name for organic substances of a fatty nature (fats, oils, waxes)
triglycerides
most fats in food; three fatty acids attached to glycerol base; body can make from excess sugar; blood level <100
fatty acids
building blocks of fat; short, medium and long chains
saturated fat
contains as much H as it can hold; dense, firm and solid; made up of animal fats (lard, beef fat, egg yolk, dairy fat); contained in tropical oils (cocunut and palm)
unsaturated fat
not full of H, so it can hold more; less heavy and less dense; most are from plant sources
monounsaturated fat
only one area is not full of H (olives, olive oil, peanuts, most nuts, avocados, canola oil)
polyunsaturated fat
more than one are is free to take H; safflower oil, cottonseed oil, corn oil, soybean oil, walnuts; salmon mackerel, trout
Olive Oil
love interest of both Popeye and Bluto; always the center of that conflict
essential fatty acids
required fatty acids; abscence would cause disease; body cannot manufacture, therefore it must be obtained in the diet; if total calorie intake is <10% fata, essential fatty acid needs are not met
linoleic acid
found in polyunsaturated vegetable oils; Omega 6
linolenic acid
Omega 3; found in milk, soy beans and flax seeds
Peanuts
comic strip created in the 1950s by cartoonist Charles Schultz; most famous character is beagle named Snoopy
Omega 3 and 6
both are needed for blood clotting, tissue strength, cholesterol metabolism, muscle tone, heart action
lipoproteins
combination of fat and protein; fat wrapped in a layer of protein; used to transport through the bloodstream because water and fat don't mix
low density lipoproteins
LDL; transports cholesterol to cells; known as bad cholesterol; want LDL to be lower; normal <130; replacing fat in the diet with monounsaturated is associated with lowering the LDL
high density lipoproteins
HDL; transports cholestero to liver, away from cells; good cholesterol; want HDL to be higher, >35
cholesterol
found in animal foods, not plant foods; necessary for metabolism; no dietary reference intake because body can make it if we don't eat it; patients that consume 50% of daily calories from fat are at risk for obesitym elevated blood fats and diabetes; recommendation is for everyone to decrease cholesterol intake; total cholesterol <200
sterols
not an actual fat
visible fats
fat that can be seen; oil on top of soup, grease in a skillet, fat in a steak
invisible fats
found in cake, chicken breasts (check labels)
animal fats
most are saturated; meat, poulty, dairy and egg yolks; choose leanest sources
plant fats
most are unsaturated; vegetable oils, avocados, nuts)
hydrogenated fats
trans fats; hydrogenation - to add H; take unsatured fat and make it saturated; changes the shape of the molecule creating trans fats; associated with increase serum-lipid levels, and increase risk of heart disease, diabete mellitus, and stroke; used in many processed foods (margarine, etc.); labelly reads "partially hyderogenated oils".
proteins
composed of C,H,O and N; absorbed as amino acids and peptides; necessary for tissue building, repair and maintenance; only used for energy in abscence of carbohydrates and fats; provides 4 kcal/g; tissue proteins, plasma proteins, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, Hgb, lipoproteins are all made from proteins; excess can be converted to glucose as needed for energy; can be stored as glycogen if stores are not full, otherwise converted to triglycerides and stored as fat; consuming too much also means more work for the kidneys due to nitrogenous wastes being excreted by urine; needs are increased for growth, illness, injury etc.
amino acids
building blocks of all proteins; 20 common which are all needed; body can only make 11 of them
recommended intake of proteins
10-35% of daily calories
low protein foods
whole grains, fruit, thin-sliced meat, oils such as olive and flaxseed
classes of amino acids
indispensable (essential); dispensable (non-essential); conditionally indispensable
indispensable (essential) amino acids
nine that the body cannot make; must come from diet, mostly animal products
dispensable (non-essential) amino acids
five that body can make it sufficient quantities; must have adequate diet
conditionally indispensable
other six amino six that body can make; body can make, but cannot make enough if demands are high; if demands are high, due to illness, injury etc, must be consumed in diet
nitrogen balance
protein is consumed in diet; broken down into amino acids; reconfigured to make protein needed by body (tissues, enzymes, etc);
catabolism
to break down; dividing proteins into individual amino acids
anabolism
building; using amino acids to make proteins
deamination
removing the N from an amino acid; body converts N to ammonia; excreted as urea in urine; helps to maintain nitrogen balance
process of nitrogen balance
1 g of N is excreted for every 6.25 g of protein eaten
positive nitrogen balance
take in more N than is excreted; increased tissue building or repair; dietary protein needs are being met; periods of rapid growth, pregnancy or lactation, illness, injury or history of malnourishment
negative nitrogen balance
take is less N than excreted; body tissue breaking down, using muscle or bone as a source of protein; dietary protein needs are not being met; illness or injury and not eating; period of growth or pregnancy and trying to diet; vegetarian not consuming enough protein; malnourishment
complete food source
contain all 9 essential amino acids in sufficient quantity to meet needs; includes high biologic protein; contains essential amino acids in quantity similar to human needs; animal proteins (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt); soy protein
incomplete food source
lack 1 or more of 9 essential amino acids; considered low biologic value; plant proteins (legumes, nuts, seeds, small amount in whole grains and veggies)
complimentary food source
incomplete proteins paired together; together get all 9 essential amino acids in a sufficient quantity; legumes+grains; legumes+seeds; grains+dairy
lacto vegetarian
eats dairy
ovo vegetarian
eats eggs
lactoovo vegetariain
eats dairy and eggs
vegan
eat only plant foods