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Terms in this set (60)
French and Indian War
the struggle between the British and French in the colonies of N. America. Was part of Seven Years War
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
plan proposed by Ben Franklin at the outset of the French and Indian War that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military and other purposes, the plan was turned down by the colonies and the crown. The colonies were suspicious of any form of consolidation or colonial unity
Throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the English government did not enforce those trade laws that most harmed the colonial economy. The purpose of salutary neglect was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists in the face of French territorial and commercial threat in North America. The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory inthe French and Indian war
A war which lasted from 1763-1766. It was started by Native American tribes who were angry with British postwar policies in the region of the Great Lakes after the British's win in the French and Indian war of 1754-1763.
Proclamation of 1763
The proclamation stated that all lands west of the rivers that flowed into the Atlantic ocean from the West or Northwest were off limits to the colonists. The "line" stretched along the crest of the Appalachians. It closed off the frontier to colonial expansion.This was put in place to calm the Indian's fear of them being pushed off their land.
Sugar Act (1764)
On April 5, 1764 parliament decided to adjust the rules of trade in the colonies due to corruption. They reduced the tax on molasses from six pence to three pence per gallon. They also added more foreign goods to be taxed and regulated the export of lumber and iron. This new law caused the decline of the colonies rum industry and reduced trade with the other colonies outside of America.
Quartering Act (1765)
This act outlined the locations and conditions in which British Soldiers were allowed to find room to board in the American colonies. The act required the colonies to house British Soldiers in the barracks provided by other colonies.
Stamp Act (1765)
This new law required all of the American colonists to pay tax on every piece of printed paper they used. The money collected was to be used to protect the American frontier.
he was a lawyer from Virginia and who later became Virginia's governor. He was a revolutionary, he was against the corrupt government and abuse against Americans. He was most famous from his speech Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death.
Stamp Act Congress
Assembly of 9 delegates from 9 colonies who met to draft a petition for the repeal the Stamp Act. Helped promote intercolonial unity.
Sons of Liberty
It was a group of revolutionary colonist from all the thirteen colonies who set out to protect the colonists from the British. They encouraged people to rebel against the British such as boycotting like the Boston Tea Party. The group included all kinds of people such as merchants, artists, and lawyers.
Declaratory Act (1766)
After the repeal of the Stamp Act the Parliament passed this act that stated the Parliament had the power to legislate for the colonies in "all cases whatsoever." Affirmed the idea of "virtual representation"
Townshend Acts (1767)
Followed the Stamp Act. Act that sought to raise revenue by an indirect tax in this case a import duty on a variety of products including glass, tar and paper.
writs of assistance
Court orders which provided custom officers with the authorization to search an area for contraband; blank search warrants. These were introduced in Massachusetts in 1751 in an attempt to enforce the Acts of Trade. Colonists protested restriction on rights
American patriot who wrote "Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer" in response to the Townshend Acts.
American patriot leader of the Sons of Liberty
Clash between unruly Bostonian protestors and locally stationed British troops, who fired on the crowd killing or wounding 11.
committees of correspondence
Local committees established across the colonies to maintain colonial opposition to British policies through the exchange of letters and pamphlets
Tea Act (1773)
lowered the tax on English tea and created a monopoly for the British East India Company in attempt to make sure it did not go into bankruptcy
Boston Tea Party (1773)
angered by the Tea Act, a protest against the East India Company newly acquired monopoly. Colonists disguised as Indians dumped tea chests into Boston Harbor prompting the issuing of the Coercive/Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts/Coercive Acts
series of acts meant to punish the people of Boston for the Tea Party. The acts closed Boston Harbor and expanded Quartering. Led to the First Continental Congress a further attempt at intercolonial unity
Quebec Act (1774)
allowed French residents of Quebec the ability to retain their traditional political and religious institutions and extended the boundaries of the province south to the Ohio River. Seen by the patriots as further evidence of Parliament's aggression
18th century religious doctrine that emphasized reasoned moral behavior and the scientific pursuit of knowledge. Believed in a Supreme Being that set the world in motion
After the European enlightenment, the Americans started to follow in the age of scientific reason to science, politics, and religion. John Locke and his ideas of natural rights and the right to revolt would influence the American patriots. It later lead to the American Revolution.
First Continental Congress (1774)
1774--Philadelphia Met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissoltions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. It rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilence. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion
Lexington & Concord
The Revolutionary War's first battles, which were fought outside of Boston. The colonial military defeated the British and had them retreat back to Boston.
Second Continental Congress (1775)
met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
Thomas Paine Common Sense
A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
Declaration of Independence
Adopted in 1776, a document expressing how the colonies wanted to be free from British rule. States that everyone is born with life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.Significance: Setup the basis of the new democracy within the United States of America
Patriots and Loyalists
Patriots were colonists who sought an end to British rule in the colonies. Loyalists were colonists who wanted the colonies to remain under Bristish rule.Significance: Created tension within the colonies as to who was on which side.
Battle of Saratoga
decisive colonial victory that helped secure French support for the Revolutionary cause
Battle of Yorktown
The last major battle of the Revolutionary war Significance: Following this battle, British troops withdrew and the colonies were free from British rule.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Document granting America free from the British, ending the Revolutionary War.Significance: America was now recognized as independent from Britain
Articles of Confederation
Was adopted by the Continental Congress on November 15, 1777. Serves as the first Constitution of the United States. Enforced from March 1st, 1781 to 1789 when the present day constitution went into effect. Created a weak central government. Did not have the power to tax, regulate trade, raise an army.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood.
Armed uprising in Massachusetts caused by Daniel Shay and his 400 rebels in 1786-1787 fighting against economic injustices.Would lead to some of the elite and propertied classes that a new, stronger national government was needed to replace the Articles of Confederation.
wife of John Adams and mother of John Quincy Adams. Her life is the most documented of the first lady's because of all the letters she wrote her husband while he was in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Wrote the "Remember the Ladies" letter
A political convention held in September 11-14, 1786 where 12 delegates from 5 states gathered to discuss the trade barriers that existed and in hopes to reverse them. At the time the states were independent from the federal government and could not trade between states.
took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787 to address the governing issues. Instead of revising the Articles of Confederation, they ended up creating a new government. This resulted in the creation of the United States Constitution.
the fourth President, also known as the "Father of the Constitution" for his work in helping to create the constitution, and author of the Bill of Rights.
Great Compromise/New Jersey Plan/Virginia Plan
An agreement that defined the legislative structure and representation that every state would have. Required the upper house to have equal value with the states, also said each state would have two representatives in the upper house. The lower house would have representation based on population of the state
: a compromise reached between the southern states and northern states where they discussed how slaves would be counted when determining a state's population in voting over legislative representation and tax. Every 5 slaves would count a 3 people for representation.
Were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution.
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. They were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. .
The Federalist Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)
A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France
Representative of the French-Republic; Despite the Neutrality proclamation, he gathered and encouraged American support of France in the war; withdrawn and replaced in response
Jay Treaty (1794)
negotiated by John Jay as an effort to avoid war with Britain. The treaty included a promise by Britain to evacuate forts in the west, but there would be no compensation for slaves freed during the Revolution and Americans were bound to pay debts owed British creditors.
Pinckney Treaty (1795)
signed with Spain, which granted Americans free navigation of the Mississippi
Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
popular uprising of whiskey distillers in western Pennsylvania in opposition to the excise tax on
The Federalist party
American political party in the 1790s led by Alexander Hamilton that promoted a stronger national government
the Democratic-Republican party
American political party in the 1790s of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison formed in opposition to the centralizing policies of the new Federalist party.
Washington's Farewell Address
The final address by George Washington to his fellow citizens as he was leaving the presidency. He wrote the address in 1796 but never delivered it. Washington discussed the dangers of divisive party politics and warned strongly against permanent alliances between the United States and other countries.
A political leader of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; one of the Founding Fathers. was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was the second president, from 1797 to 1801, after George Washington. presidency was marked by diplomatic challenges, in which he avoided war with France.
a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War.
Quasi War (1798)
was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800. It was caused because of United States refused to continue repaying its debt to France on the grounds that it had been owed to a previous regime.
Alien and Sedition Acts
A series of laws, passed during the presidency of John Adams at the end of the eighteenth century, that sought to restrict the public activities of political radicals who sympathized with the French Revolution and criticized Adams's Federalist policies.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Statements of principle adopted by two state legislatures in the 1790s; they affirmed states' rights in response to the federal Alien and Sedition Acts. Initiated the doctrine of nullification
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