AKA nephrocalcinosis, or Brights Disease. immunological reaction that can follow streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract or middle ear. Affects the nephrons. Microscopic deposits of antigens are the gold standard for diagnosing this. radiographically the kidneys appear larger than normal & is treated with diuretics
most common malignant tumor of the kidney, 2x more in males & increased after age 40. Unknown cause, & linked to chronic inflammation from cigarette smoking.
3x more common in males, after age 50. The cause is related to cigarette smoking & coffee, & painless hematuria is a symptom.
a pouch in the wall of the urinary bladderr, may be congenital or caused by chronic inflammation. middle aged men. bladder may have to be surgically reconstructed.
AKA acute glomerulonephritis or nephrocalcinosis. inflammatory reaction to the renal parenchyma caused by an antigen antibody reaction in the glomeruli.
when one kidney lies across the body midline & is fused to the other kidney. 2nd most common fusion anomaly.
catheter used in cystography for the injection of contrast media. has a balloon at the end to hold in place.
most common fusion anomally. lower poles of kidney are joined across the midline by a band of soft tissue.
obstructive disease of the urinary system that causes a dilation of the renal pelvis & calyces with urine. most common cause is calculus, blockage or a congenital defect.
overdevelopment of one kidney. associated with renal agenesis or hypoplasia of the other kidney.
incomplete or excessive rotation of the kidneys as they ascend from the pelvis in utero.
medullary sponge kidney
congenital dilation of the renal tubules leading to urinary stasis & increased elvels of calcium phosphate.
malignant renal tumor found in 1/13,500 births. can be felt as an abdominal mass. 80% cure rate.
kidney prolapse. in long/lean/athletic individuals, the kidney is mobile and may drop toward the pelvis. a long ureter distinguishes it from congenital pelvic kidney.
dysfunction caused by interference w/ the nerve impulses concerned with urination.
polycystic kidney disease
tiny cysts in the nephron present at birth. results in childhood renal failure.
rare, the absence of the kidney on one side. Usually a large kidney on the other side.
stones that develop from urine. Caused by metabolic disorders, excessive calcium & chronic UTI's.
the end result of a chronic process. loss of glomerular filteration, breakdown of the parenchyma. Uremia is present, & dialysis & transplantation is needed.
rare. presence of a small 3rd kidney. Has no parenchymal attachment. can become infected.
surgically placed stent in the ureter to treat ureteral obstruction. enables urine to flow normally.
cystlike dilation of a ureter near its opening into the bladder. a filling defect with a "cobra head" appearance.
presence of mucosal folds that protrude into the posterior urethra, can cause obstruction.diagnosed by voiding cytourethrography.
urinary tract infection
UTI. most common of all bacterial infections. caused by bacteria invading up the urethra to the bladder.