Chapter 8 skin disorders

Skin Disorders and Diseases
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albinism
congenital hypopigmentation, or absence of melanin pigment of the body, including the skin, hair, and nails
allergic contact dermatitis
an allergy to an ingredient or a chemical, usually caused by repeated skin contact with the chemical
anaerobic
cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
anihidrosis
deficiency in perspiration, often the result of fever or certain skin diseases
basal cell carcinoma
most common and least severe type of skin cancer; often characterized by light or pearly nodules
bromhidrosis
foul-smelling perspiration, usually noticeable in the armpits or on the feet, that is caused by bacteria
bulla
large blister containing a watery fluid; similar to a vesicle but larger
chloasma
also known as liver spots; condition characterized by hyperpigmentation on the skin in spots that are not elevated
closed comedo
also known as a whitehead; hair follicle is closed and not exposed to the environment; sebum remains a white or cream color and comedone appears as small bump just under the skin surface
conjunctivitis
also known as pinkeye; common bacterial infection of the eyes; extremely contagious
contact dermatitis
an inflammation of the skin caused by having contact with certain chemicals or substances; many of these substances are used in cosmetology
crust
dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing; an accumulation of sebum and pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material
cyst
closed, abnormally developed sac that contains fluid, pus, or morbid matter above or below the skin
dermatitis
inflammatory condition of the skin
dyschromias
abnormal colorations of the skin that accompany many skin disorders and systemic disorders
eczema
an inflammatory, uncomfortable, and often chronic disease of the skin, characterized by moderate to severe inflammation, scaling, and sometimes severe itching
excoriation
skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping
extrinsic factors
primarily environmental factors that contribute to aging and the appearance of aging
fissure
a crack in the skin that penetrates the dermis; examples include severely chapped and/or cracked hand or lips
free radicals
unstable molecules that cause biochemical aging, especially wrinkling and sagging of skin
herpes simplex
recurring viral infection that often presents as a fever blister or cold sore
hyperhidrosis
excessive sweating, caused by heat or general body weakness
hyperpigmentation
darker than normal pigmentation, appearing as dark splotches
hypertrophy
abnormal growth of the skin
hypopigmentation
absence of pigment, resulting in light or white splotches
impetigo
contagious bacterial skin infection characterized by weeping lesions
intrinsic factors
skin-aging factors over which we have little control
irritant contact dermatitis
occurs when irritating substances temporarily damage the epidermis
keloid
thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue
keratoma
acquired, superficial, thickened patch of epidermis also known as a callus; caused by continued rubbing, repeated pressure or friction on any part of the skin, especially the hands and feet
lentigines
technical term for freckles; small yellow-brown to brown-colored spots on the skin exposed to sunlight and air
lesion
mark on the skin; may indicate an injury or damage that changes the structure of tissues and organs
leukoderma
skin disorder characterized by light abnormal patches; caused by a burn or congenital disease that destroys the pigment-producing cells
macule
flat spot or discoloration on the skin, such as a freckle or a red spot after a pimple has healed
malignant melanoma
most serious form of skin cancer; often characterized by black or dark brown patches on the skin that may appear uneven in texture, jagged, or raised
milia
benign, keratin-filled cysts that can appear just under the epidermis and have no visible opening
miliaria rubra
also known as prickly heat; an acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands, characterized by the eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itching skin
mole
small, brownish spot or blemish on the skin, ranging in color from pale tan to brown or bluish black
nevus
also known as a birthmark; small or large malformation of the skin due to abnormal pigmentation or dilated capillaries
nodule
a solid bump larger than .4 inches (1 centimeter) that can be easily felt
noncomedogenic
product that has been designed and proven not to clog the follicles
primary lesions
lesions that are a different color than the color of the skin, and/or lesions that are raised above the surface of the skin
psoriasis
skin disease characterized by red patches covered with silver-white scales; usually found on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest and lower back
retention hyperkeratosis
hereditary tendency for acne-prone skin to retain dead cells in the follicle, forming an obstruction that clogs the follicles and exacerbates inflammatory acne lesions such as papules and pustules
rosacea
chronic condition that appears primarily on the cheeks and nose, and is characterized by flushing (redness), telangiectasis, and in some cases the formation of papules and pustules
scale
any thin, dry or oily plate of epidermal flakes; an example is abnormal or excessive dandruff
scar
also known as cicatrix; a lightly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed
sebaceous cyst
a large protruding pocket-like lesion filled with sebum; frequently seen on the scalp and on the back; should be removed surgically by a dermatologist
seborrheic dermatitis
skin condition caused by an inflammation of the sebaceous glands; often characterized by redness, dry or oily scaling, crustiness, and/or itchiness
sensitization
allergic reaction created by repeated exposure to a chemical or a substance
skin tag
a small brown-colored or flesh-colored outgrowth of skin
squamous cell carcinoma
type of skin cancer; often characterized by scaly red papules or nodules
stain
abnormal brown-colored or wine-colored skin discoloration with a circular or irregular shape
tan
change in pigmentation of skin caused by exposure to the sun or ultraviolet light
telangiectasis
distended of dilate surface blood vessels
tubercle
abnormal, rounded, solid lump above, within, or under the skin; larger than a papule
tumor
an abnormal mass varying in size, shape, and color
ulcer
open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth and possibly weeping fluids or pus
verruca
also known as a wart; hypertrophy of the papillae and epidermis
vesicle
small blister or sac containing fluid, lying within or just beneath the epidermis
vitiligo
hereditary condition that causes hypopigmented spots and splotches on the skin; may be related to thyroid conditions
wheal
itchy, swollen lesion that lasts only a few hours; caused by a blow or scratch, the bite of an insect, urticaria, or the sting of a nettle
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