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Drugs for Angina & Heart Failure
Terms in this set (39)
What type of angina is caused by coronary spasm?
What kind of angina does not respond to beta-blockers?
Nitrates predominately vasodilate which vessels in low doses? Prevent spasm where?
Veins. Coronary arteries.
Headaches due to nitrates can be expected to do what over time?
What adverse effect is triggered by baroreceptors in response to venous dilation?
What drugs are contraindicated in men who are taking nitrates?
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors
Which nitrate formulation is recommended for intermittent angina treatment at home?
How are SL nitroglycerin tablets taken?
1 Tablet (0.3-0.6 mg) every 5 minutes x 3, Emergency department if angina persists 5 min
What must the nurse check before administering nitroglycerin?
Blood pressure and pulse
Why should nitroglycerin paste be removed at night?
Prevent tachyphylaxis (tolerance)
How would a dry mouth affect the absorption of nitroglycerin?
Nitrates in low doses decrease afterload or preload? Arterioles or veins?
Selective beta-blockers block which receptors at low doses?
Beta-blockers decrease three parameters. What are they?
Heart rate, blood pressure, contractility
What may beta-blockers mask in diabetes and during allergy shots?
Signs of hypoglycemia and allergic reactions.
Which drug given for allergic reactions may be inhibited by beta-blockers?
In asthmatics, beta-blockers may cause what symptom? Block what receptor?
Beta-blockers with verapamil or diltiazem can severely decrease which vital sign parameter?
Abrupt cessation of beta-blockers can lead to excitation or depression of the beta-adrenergic receptors?
Do not give beta-blockers if the pulse is below ____ or the systolic BP is below____.
Pulse 50, SBP 90
What is the family of calcium-channel blockers which does not include verapamil or diltiazem?
Calcium-channel blockers vasodilate which blood vessels?
Calcium-channel blockers decrease afterload or preload?
Dihydropyridines may cause what side effect which can be treated with beta-blockers?
Swelling of extremities may be caused by what 2 classes of antihypertensive agents?
Nitrates & calcium-channel blockers
Calcium-channel blockers are used for what kinds of angina?
Stable and variant
Vasodilation of arteries reduces afterload or preload?
How does ranolazine (Ranexa) work?
How does it cause torsades de pointes?
The drug decreases sodium and calcium in the myocardial cells, which allows the cells to use energy more efficiently. The drug prolongs the QT interval.
Digoxin (Lanoxin) is used in heart failure primarily for what effect?
Positive inotropic effect
What should the nurse do before giving digoxin?
Take the apical pulse for 1 minute.
What electrolyte competes with digoxin for the receptor?
What are some signs of digitalis toxicity?
Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, arrhythmias, weakness, yellow vision, halos around lights, blurred vision
What is the antidote for digoxin toxicity?
What common drug classes can precipitate digoxin toxicity?
Loop and thiazide diuretics
What are the effects of alpha-1 activation by catecholamines?
Vasoconstriction of arterioles in skin, viscera, & mucous membranes and in veins.
What are the effects of beta-1 activation by catecholamines?
Increased heart rate, contractility, and conduction rate. Renin release.
What are the effects of beta-2 activation in the lungs and liver?
Bronchodilation & glycogenolysis.
What are the renal effects of dopamine activation?
Renal blood vessel dilation.
Which IV continuous drug is used to increase contractility without causing vasoconstriction?
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