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Unit 4: Political Geography HGAP
Terms in this set (39)
Largest logical regions into which we can divide the whole world
A huge area not being occupied
The separation of countries by ethic or religious lines, origin; Balkans area after WWI the Yugoslavia were they place different ethnicities. The fragmentation of a region into smaller, often hostile, political units The term comes from the Balkan Peninsula of Europe, a region that has balkanized may time, and is still undergoing balkanization.
All regional boundaries are transition zones
Natural features of Earth's surface
Defined and delimited before the present-day human landscape developed (between Malaysia and Indonesia on Borneo)
Evolved as the landscape developed as part of ongoing accommodation (between Vietnam and China)
Drawn forcibly across a unified or homogenous area (New Guinea) without regard to pre-existing divisions
Ceased to function, but imprint still evident (Vietnam)
An area on the earth's surface marked by certain properties
Ex: Amazon River Basin - can use vegetation distribution, soil properties, slope angles, drainage patterns
May have visible uniformity or defined by cultural criteria. A region within which the same language is spoken by 90% or > of the pop is also a formal region
Product of interactions and/or movement of various kinds (a city with commuting workers)
In the minds of people
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international, community,division of a federal State
A group of tightly knit people who speak a single language, have a common history, share the same cultural background, and who may be united by common political institutions
A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity
a state with more than one nation within it borders
overlapping nations - where a nation is or has been two or more states
Like a circle p, effective communication
Ex: France, Germany, and Spain
Long narrow shape, communication, and transportation problems if capital is not in center
Describe; shape, size, relative location of states
Determine opportunity and challenges
Compact with large projection extensions, exist in order to reach natural resources
Ex: Democratic Republic of Congo
Completely surrounded by another state
Ex: South Africa
Several discontinued pieces of land composed of Islands
Ex: Japan, Indonesia, and USA
When one small ethnicity wants to join the part of the majority. A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country
Ex: Germany invasion in Switzerland and Czechoslovakia and Poland
Political party in control attempt to draw boundaries to improve chances in this process
Empire Building, characterized political landscape during 19-20 century
Groups of country in a group, establish rules
Ex: European Union (region), United Nations (International)
Decentralization of decision-making to regional government. The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
Ex: British has power over Welsh & Scottland
Bind the people of a state, giving strength one of the most powerful is nationalism
Oppose centripetal forces, destabilize the government encourage country to fall apart
Alfred Mahad (1890)
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History - Since sea power was necessary to facilitate trade and peaceful commerce, whichever country controlled the seas would be the most powerful. Such a country would have a strong navy and physically have an accessible relative location connected with a long coastline and good harbors
Sir Halford Mackinder (1904)
Wrote Democratic Ideals and Reality. "Heartland Theory" - Development of railroad and other advances in technology forced reevaluation of strategies and spatial concepts. Navy no longer depended upon to move large armies, so focus of warfare would be shifted inland to the hinterland (interiors). Originally developed a "pivot area", northern and interior parts of the Eurasian continent where rivers flow to the Arctic or to salt seas and lakes. Later he called the area "Heartland". "He who controls the Heartland controls the World island (Eurasia and Africa); He who controls the World Island, controls the world."
Friedrick Ratzel (1897)
"Organic State Theory" - a state is a living organism and has a life cycle; young, vulnerable adolescent - tough guy, etc. - mature - stability, old age - competing with other states to survive.
Rimland Theory: Proponent of Environmental Determinism and disagreed with Mackinder. He believed the northern half of the world would always be more important than the southern half, and that the location of a state north or south of the Equator plays a large part in determining the significance of the state. He believed both the sea and land power were important and saw the real potential of Eurasia as being in the "inner crescent." This area included Western Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Far East. He called this area the Rimland. This area provided access to the interior and to the sea. "Who controls the Rimland rules Eurasia; who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world." E.g. water ways, de Seversky concluded air power, now oil, tomorrow???
World System theory - best known of the Core-Periphery theories - The world system is a social system with boundaries, structures, etc. and comprised of two types; World Empires with a single political system over most of the area; and World Economy in which such a single political system does not exist over all of the space. He believes the world economy was developed in Europe in the 16th century and that there are three geographic areas (see above).
His World System reflects Determinism since he believed the system had been fully developed by the 1950's, so no country would be able to enter it and be able to successfully compete nor would the peripheral countries ever be able to catch economically to the core countries.
A type of multi-national organization where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states- NAFTA, APEC, G8, EU, OPEC
Forces from within a State that unite it / forces that keep a country together (Hint: centripetal = together)
a strong common culture
a popular national hero Gandhi in India
a common outside threat
a historical "enemy"
The post World War II animosity between the United States and the USSR.
The cold war was exhibited through huge military buildups and the quest for alliances with other countries.
This had a significant impact on many countries affecting their:
support for rebellions
and sometimes resulting in war supported by the U.S. and USSR superpowers.
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