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What are characteristics all animals share?

1. multicellular 2. eukaryotic - lack cell walls 3. heterotrophic 4. ability to actively move


animal with no vertebrate column

Porifera characteristics

no true tissues; cannot move (sessile); asymmetric


animals that are permanently attached to a solid surface

What trait separate sponges from other phyla?

they have no true tissues


pores through which water circulates


group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function


cavity which water fills


water exits through this opening after flowing through sponocoel


cell with flagellum (collar cell)


layer of cells functioning as outer covering of sponge


cells resembling amoebas, that move through body of the sponge; responsible for repair and regeneration; transport food and other materials


skeletal elements that give support to the sponge's body; composed of calcium carbonate, silica, or protein called spongin


protein forms flexible fibers


simplest form of a sponge; tubular and small; increased growth, sponocoel increases - bigger = not enough collar cells to move sufficient amount of water because no increase in surface area

Filter Feeder

organism that filters its food from the water


form of asexual reproduction in which the unequal division of the adult produces two individuals


an animal that posses both male and female sex organs


first stages of body-wall folding; internal pockets lined with collar cells


highest degree of body-wall folding; many chambers lined with collar cells; multiple oscula

suspension feeders

animals that feed on organisms suspended in seawater

how do sponges get nutrients?

filter feeders and suspension feeders; rely on the flow of H2O through choanocyte collar cells

How do sponges reproduce?

See page 195

What ecological roles do sponges play?

recycling of Ca; can create toxins to kill corals because of competition for space; produce chemicals that deter grazing; hosts to organisms (mutualism, commensalism)

what is size determined by?

the ability to circulate water


water comes in through this opening

Bernoulli's Principle

faster moving = less pressure; allows planes to fly; see diagram in notebook; ergo: sponges usually found in areas of high current because the water is then forced up through the sponge

reliance for H2O flow

1. Bernoulli's Principle 2. Beating of flagella by collar cells

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