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Terms in this set (55)
An independent variable that we can represent using an interval or ratio scale is what type of variable
Quantitative
An independent variable that we can represent using a nominal scale is what type of variable?
Qualitative
The different treatment conditions of the independent variable are known as what?
Levels
Which of the following statements about the ANOVA is correct?
All of the above
The results of an ANOVA can be used to infer a cause and effect relation between the independent variables when the research design is what?
True experiment
In the general linear model, μ represents what?
Population mean from where you got your sample
In the ANOVA the total variance is a measure of what?
The variance among all observations
In the ANOVA the within-group variance is a measure of what?
The variation among observations in each group.
In the ANOVA the between-group variance is a measure of what?
The variation among all group means in the study
If there is no treatment effect, we can expect the F -ratio to be what?
One
Researchers use a factorial design when what?
When you have two or more independent variables
Using a factorial design allows a researcher to what?
All of the above
The term "factorial" means what?
Your design contains all possible levels of the IVs in the study
A main effect refers to what?
The effect of the IV separate from the effect of the other IVs.
If one finds a statistically significant interaction, we may conclude what?
The differences among the groups cannot be explained by the main effects alone.
A factorial ANOVA must have a minimum of how many unique treatment conditions?
Four
Which of the following best describes the interaction examined in a factorial ANOVA?
The combined affects of factors A and B cannot be accounted by either factor itself
In a two-way analysis of variance each observation yields information concerning how many treatment effects?
Two
If a researcher finds that the main effects for factors A and B are statistically significant and that the interaction of A and B is statistically significant, the researcher should conclude what?
Both factors A and B contribute to the pattern of data and together they produce affects that cannot be accounted for by either factor.
A 5 × 6 factorial design involves what?
Five levels of one treatment and six of another.
In which subjects design does the researcher tests each participant only under one condition? By contrast, in which subjects design may the researcher test each participant on several occasions?
Between subjects= one condition
Within=several
In order to maximize the utility of a matched-groups design, the researcher should be confident that the measure of the subject variable correlates with what?
Dependent Variable
When a researcher uses a matched groups design, we can conclude what?
The treatment groups are not independent of each other
In a simple repeated-measures design, the researcher will what?
All of the above
As a generality, the carry-over effect is what?
A confounding variable that cannot be eliminated from the within- subjects design
Procedures such as the Solomon Four Group Design and the Latin Square design allows the researcher to what?
Increase the statistical power of the design
The primary feature of a mixed-model design is what?
The use of between and within subject variables
As a generality, when a researcher uses a within-subjects design he or she may hope to what?
decrease within group variance
An independent variable to which the researcher randomly assigns subjects is a what?
A between subjects factor
The primary difference between the matched-participants and the simple repeated measures design is what?
Match participants design allows the researcher to randomly assign participants to treatment conditions
What is the best description of the defining characteristic of a single-participant research design?
It's a careful analysis of the patterns of behavior produced by individuals instead of groups.
What is NOT true of a single-participant research design?
You cannot use this method to show cause and effect
What is the primary difference between a variable used for a baseline study and a variable used for a discrete trial study?
A baseline study- the variable is an ongoing part of the individual's behavior.
A discrete trial study- the variable is a reaction to a specific stimulus or event
For an ABAB design, the A condition represents what?
The baseline condition
For an ABAB design, the B condition represents what?
The treatment condition
The distinguishing feature of a longitudinal research design is what?
Time frame
For survival analysis, time is what?
The dependent variable
A nonequivalent control group design refers to what?
Does not use random assignment to create the control group and the experimental group
A quasi-experiment implies what?
The researcher has no control over the IV
In a quasi-experiment what is missing?
Random assignment
Some areas of research in the behavioral and social sciences require the chi-square tests why?
Because the researcher uses nominal scales to conduct research
What is NOT an example of mutually exclusive categories?
Swimmers and runners
What is required for the chi-square test?
The total of the observed and expected scores are always equal
When using the chi-square goodness of fit test, the expected scores represent what?
All of the above
What is required for the chi-square goodness of fit test to be statistically significant?
The difference between the observed and expected frequencies must be zero
An inflated T refers to what?
The combining of cells in a chi-square
What is NOT an example of categorical data?
Scales from 1 to 10
If the data are nominal, the researcher is most likely to use which test?
Chi-square
The Goodness of Fit Test determines whether a statistically significant difference exists between what and what within mutually exclusive classes?
Between the Observed and Expected frequencies
What is NOT an assumption of the Goodness of Fit Test?
Equal group sizes
Qualitative research is focused on what?
Sense making in a pure sense
What is most focused on quantification?
Quantitative
What is NOT a typical source of qualitative data?
Frequency tables
What is a technique used to quantify otherwise qualitative date?
Content analysis
Which research orientation involves the identification and development of theory from the data as it is collected and analyzed?
Grounded theory
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