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In 1869, ________ introduced the elective system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.

philanthropists who established universities

In the late nineteenth century, Johns Hopkins, Jonas Clark, and John D. Rockefeller were all

being the first college for women

Vassar College holds the distinction of

Herbert Spencer

The most influential social Darwinist was the English thinker

John Dewey

The leader of what was called progressive education was

it gave Americans unique character

In his frontier thesis, Frederick Jackson Turner argued that

Mark Twain

The author of novels such as Huckleberry Finn, whose acute reportorial eyes and ears caught the spirit of his age, was


American painters of the late 19th century such as Winslow Homer and Thomas Eakins painted in a style called

build libraries

Industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated millions of dollars to help

Frank Leslie

The leading publisher of magazines directed at average citizens in the 1860s and 1870s


The presidents during the Gilded Age were mostly _____________ leaders


During the Gilded Age, the legislative body known as a "rich man's club" was the

closely contests

National elections between 1856 and 1912 were characterized by

post civil war tensions

The "bloody shirt" issue of the Gilded Age refers to

Grand Army of the Republic

The mammoth organization of Union Army veterans that quickly became a powerful national political pressure group was the


In 1881 President ________ was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, an unbalanced office-seeker.

Civil Service

The Pendleton Act of 1883 was a triumph for those Americans who sought ________ reform.


The New York Democrat who won the "dirty" presidential election of 1884 was

Plessy v. Ferguson

The doctrine of "separate but equal" facilities was handed down by the Supreme Court in

Booker T. Washington

The black leader most identified with the "Atlanta Compromise" was

Boss Tweed

The most notorious of all city bosses was

Farmer's Alliance

The earlier group from which the Populist movement emerged was the


The election of 1892 seemed to set up a showdown in the election of 1896 on the issue of the

Jacob Coxey

The small-town businessman who led an "army" of the unemployed on a march to Washington, D.C. in 1894 was

William Jennings Bryan

the dramatic "Cross of Gold" speech won the 1896 Democratic presidential nomination for

S.S. McClure

A leading magazine editor and crusading reformer of the early 20th century was


Theodore Roosevelt called the progressive-era journalists who investigated corruption and fraud in American business and politics

Progressive Mayors

Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones, Tom L. Johnson, and Seth Low were all


The banner "progressive" state during the early years of the twentieth century was

Triangle Shirt Waist Factory

Legislation protecting workers against on-the-job accidents was inspired by the disastrous

consumer's league

Headed by Florence Kelley and associated with lawyer Louis Brandeis, the most effective women's organization of the Progressive Era was the

economic and sociological evidence

In Muller v. Oregon (1908) attorney Louis Brandeis presented a so-called "Brandeis brief" to the Supreme Court, which was based on


On the national level, the Progressive Era saw the completion of the struggle for

required the popular election of senators

One example of the progressive drive for political democracy was the Seventeenth Amendment which

regulate rather than eliminate them

Theodore Roosevelt believed that the most effective means of dealing with big corporations was to

Theodore Roosevelt

The first progressive president and the advocate of the "Square Deal" was

make the Interstate Commerce Commission more powerful and active

The primary result of the 1906 Hepburn Act was to

filthy conditions of Chicago slaughterhouses

Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle exposed


Theodore Roosevelt handpicked ________ to succeed him and carry out his policies


Taft got into political hot water in the 1910 "Ballinger-Pinchot" controversy, which dealt with

Theodore Roosevelt

The politician who advocated a New Nationalism was

Theodore Roosevelt

In 1912 the breakup of the Republican party produced an independent third party, the Progressives, led by

New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson advocated a program called the

gave the country a central banking system for the first time since Jackson

When it was passed in 1913, the Federal Reserve Act


As part of the New Freedom, the ________ Act prohibited both price discrimination, which encouraged monopolies, and interlocking directorates created to control competition

W.E.B. Du Bois

One of the most prominent black militants of the progressive era was

didn't care

After the Civil War, most Americans' attitude toward foreign affairs was that they

damages done by confederate ships built in Britain

Because of the Alabama claims of 1871, the British paid the United States $15.5 million for


In 1867, the United States purchased Alaska from


Alfred Thayer Mahan argued in the 1890s that national security and prosperity rested on a powerful

Pacific and Latin America

After the Civil War, America extended its overseas influence and empire in the


The major issue in the Spanish-American War was the independence of

publishing tales of spanish atrocities

Before the Spanish-American War, both Hearst's New York Journal and Pulitzer's New York World tried to increase circulation by


In February 1898 the American battleship ________ mysteriously exploded in Havana harbor.

Amelio Hemegualdo

The leader of the Filipino nationalist forces during the 1890s was

devastated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay

In the first battle of the Spanish-American War, Commodore George Dewey

Theodore Roosevelt

The American politician who formed a volunteer unit, the "Rough Riders," and participated in storming San Juan Hill was


After the Spanish-American War, heated debates raged over the imperialism of annexing

they were unfit to be citizens

Some anti-imperialists objected to annexing the Philippines because

launched a Gorilla War Revolt against the American

When America refused to withdraw its armed forces, the Filipinos

not bound to follow the Constitution

In the "insular cases" the Supreme Court ruled that


In 1900, the United States insisted that the constitution of ________ grant America naval bases and authorize American intervention whenever necessary to protect life, property, and individual liberty.

Guantanamo Bay Navy Base to America and avoid treaties with any foreign power

Under the Platt Amendment, Cuba was forced to

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine

Early in the 20th century, the United States announced that it must "exercise international police power" in the Western Hemisphere in the

John Hay

The principle architect of America's "Open Door" policy was


The "Open Door" policy attempted to preserve the chances for American business to enter the markets of


At the turn of the twentieth century, the so-called Boxer Rebellion broke out in

decreasing immigration from Japan in turn for not segregating California schools and not issuing passports to laborers who wished to go to America

According to the "Gentlemen's Agreement" negotiated by Roosevelt in 1907


In order to build the Panama Canal on the terms he wanted, President Roosevelt intervened militarily to aid the Panamanian revolt against


President ________ called his policy of influencing other countries without actually controlling them "dollar diplomacy."


The Great War (WW I)was precipitated by the


In February, 1917, the U.S. learned of the ________ Telegram in which Germany offered a military alliance to Mexico if the U.S. entered the war on the Allied side.

Harry Truman

The future American political leader who commanded an artillery battalion in France during the Great War was

John J. Pershing

The American Expeditionary Force was commanded by General

14 points

President Wilson's plan for a lasting peace after the Great War was known as the

A. Mitchell Palmer

In the 1919-1920 "Red Scare," radicals were ruthlessly suppressed by Attorney General

The Jazz Singer

The first significant talking movie was

Radios and Movies

The 1920s saw immense changes in popular culture because of the two new technologies of

extraordinarily popular

During the 1920s, American sports were

teaching evolution in public schools

The 1925 Dayton, Tennessee "Monkey Trial" dealt with

F. Scott Fitzgerald

The symbol of the "lost generation" and the author of The Great Gatsby was


America's foremost cynic of the 1920s, who displayed witty contempt for almost everything, was

Marcus Garvey

The leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, whose slogan was "Back to Africa," was

Henry Ford

The individual most responsible for the growth of the automobile industry was

Charles Lindbergh

In May 1927, the first solo non-stop flight from New York to Paris was made in his Spirit of St. Louis by

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