2 types of cytoplasm
outlines the protist, creates the psuedopod, thinner
the inside of the protist, fills the psuedopod, thicker
opens and closes to primarily remove water and waste
animal like protist
movement of the cytoplasm into the psuedopod
needle like structures used for protection
protein hairs used in movement and feeding
used in reproduction through conjugation
moves the organism
used in steering
kingdom eubacteria after endosymbiosis
characteristics of kingdom protista
most are unicellular
3 habitats of protists
oral groove -> mouth pore -> gullet -> food vacuole
autotrophic -> photosynthesis
asexually (binary fission)
asexually (binary fission)
plant like protists
major producer of oxygen
major food source in water ecosystems
4 phyllia of unicellular algae
3 phyllia of multicellular algae
function of fungus like protists
break down organic materials to obtain energy
does the ameba proteus have more then one pseudopod?
how many parts are there in a cytoplasm of the ameba proteus?
2 - ectoplasm and endoplasm
eats both plants and animals
absorbs things into the membrane of the cell by surrounding food in the membrane and pinching off inside the membrane
ectoplasm pushes pellicle out, then endoplasm fills the space in
major producer of oxygen, major food source in water ecosystems
fungus like protists
break down organic materials to obtain energy - examples: molds and mildews
why aren't algae considered plants?
1. don't have different types of tissue - algae has all the same.
2. form gametes in unicellular gametangia(gamete chamber) in plants there is a multicellular gametangia
characteristics of algae
1. most are aquatic
2. have flagella at some point in the life cycle
3. contain pyrenoids
organelles that synthesize the store starch
4 types of algae
filamentous, unicellular, colonial, and multicellular
most are aquatic - make up phytoplankton (photosynthetic) organisms that form the foundation of aquatic food chains (make up 1/2 the worlds carbohydrates). major producer of oxygen.
example of unicellular algae
groups of cells acting in a coordinated manner - some cells become specialized. divisions of labor allows algae to move, feed, and reproduce efficiently
example of colonial algae
single or multicellular organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom
how protists are defined
most diverse type of eukaryotes
sometimes live ones have mitchondria
when protists emerged
2 billion years ago
similar to protists
bacteria and cyanobacteria
several cells in a larger body with labor division
many are autotrophs
many are photosynthetic
how carbohydrates are made
how protists move
temporarily extending structures by called psuedopodia
binary and multiple fission
conjugation (two protists join, exchange genetic information, and divide into 4 parts)
where organelles are from
3 types of protists
plant, animal, and fungi like
animal like protists
moves without cilia or flagella
large, rounded cytoplasmic extensions that help moving and feeding
how psuedopodia form
cytoplasm flows forward to create a blunt, arm like extension
another name for psuedopodia movement
how sacodines feed
surround the food with protozoa, trap the food in a vesicle, release an enzyme to digest food
in oceans, many shells of calcium carbonate. the shells collect and over time create limestone
a fatal disease started in the intenstine and caused by an amoeba living there
most common ciliate
protein covering, cell membrane of the amoeba
squeeze water out of the cell
2 types of ciliates in nuclei
use conjugation and meiosis
no true roots, stems or leaves
single-celled gamete chambers
synthesize and store starch
plantlike body portion of seaweed
chlorophylls a and b
cell walls made of cellulose
corals and lichens
both plant and animal like, autotrophic, no cell wall.
move fast, live in digestive tracts of certain animals, abundant in water, flexible, have a pellicle.
euglena in the dark
have slender, rod shaped body - tows of cells joined end to end
example of filamentous algae
have a leaf like body
example of a multicellular algae
ulva or maerocystis pryrifera (giant algae)
multicellular, contain chlorophyls - mostly brown, mostly marine, plant like (seaweed/kelps), most common around rocky coasts.
structures of brown algae
thallus, holdfast, stipe, blade.
thallus of brown algae
is made up of all the other parts. the blade is the top part. stipe is the stem like part in the middle. the holdfast is used to anchor the kelp to something at the bottom of the ocean/sea.
unicellular, form shells(the cell wall), made of 2 pieces that form together like a box and lid, used in toothpaste.
two types of diatoms
circular or triangular shells - marine environments
rectangular shaped - aquatic environments
major part of phytoplankton, producer in both aquatic and marine food webs (at the base of the food web), release oxygen.
unicellular, 2 flagellum, cell walls are made of cellulose, most are photosynthetic autotrophs, some are red - produce toxins like red tide
always there, just not enough to cause problems. infects shellfish but not enough to make them sick. posions humans when they eat the infected fish. the poison makes humans sick and you can die.
what causes red tide?
when there are lots of dinoflagellates in the water and the temperature increases - the can divide/multiply a lot quicker. also when theres a lot of pollutions in the water.
aquatic, can be used to create oil- petroleum deposits
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