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103 terms

Biology Protist Test

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psuedopod
false foot
psuedopod functions
moves
feeds
phagocytosis
2 types of cytoplasm
ectoplasm
endoplasm
ectoplasm
outlines the protist, creates the psuedopod, thinner
endoplasm
the inside of the protist, fills the psuedopod, thicker
contractile vacuole
opens and closes to primarily remove water and waste
protozoan
animal like protist
cytoplasmic streaming
movement of the cytoplasm into the psuedopod
trichocysts
needle like structures used for protection
cilia
protein hairs used in movement and feeding
macronucleus
metabolic functions
micronucleus
used in reproduction through conjugation
large flagella
moves the organism
small flagella
used in steering
eyespot
detects light
kingdom eubacteria after endosymbiosis
kingdom protista
characteristics of kingdom protista
most are unicellular
eukaryotic organisms
habitat
3 habitats of protists
freshwater
terrestrial
marine
freshwater
aquatic
land
terrestrial
ocean
marine
amoeba feeding
phagocytosis
paramecium feeding
oral groove -> mouth pore -> gullet -> food vacuole
euglena feeding
autotrophic -> photosynthesis
amoeba movement
psuedopod
paramecium movement
cilia
euglena movement
2 flagella
amoeba reproduction
asexually (binary fission)
paramecium reproduction
asexually (binary fission)
OR
sexually (conjugation)
plant like protists
algae
algae
major producer of oxygen
major food source in water ecosystems
4 phyllia of unicellular algae
euglenoids
diatoms
dinoflagellates
green algae
3 phyllia of multicellular algae
red algae
brown algae
green algae
function of fungus like protists
break down organic materials to obtain energy
does the ameba proteus have more then one pseudopod?
yes
how many parts are there in a cytoplasm of the ameba proteus?
2 - ectoplasm and endoplasm
eats both plants and animals
paramecium
anal pore
releases waste
phagocytosis
absorbs things into the membrane of the cell by surrounding food in the membrane and pinching off inside the membrane
cytoplasmic streaming
ectoplasm pushes pellicle out, then endoplasm fills the space in
algae
major producer of oxygen, major food source in water ecosystems
fungus like protists
break down organic materials to obtain energy - examples: molds and mildews
why aren't algae considered plants?
1. don't have different types of tissue - algae has all the same.
2. form gametes in unicellular gametangia(gamete chamber) in plants there is a multicellular gametangia
characteristics of algae
1. most are aquatic
2. have flagella at some point in the life cycle
3. contain pyrenoids
pyrenoids
organelles that synthesize the store starch
4 types of algae
filamentous, unicellular, colonial, and multicellular
unicellular algae
most are aquatic - make up phytoplankton (photosynthetic) organisms that form the foundation of aquatic food chains (make up 1/2 the worlds carbohydrates). major producer of oxygen.
example of unicellular algae
chlamydomonas
colonial algae
groups of cells acting in a coordinated manner - some cells become specialized. divisions of labor allows algae to move, feed, and reproduce efficiently
example of colonial algae
volvox
algae
many sizes
autotrophic
protists
single or multicellular organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom
how protists are defined
exclusion
most diverse type of eukaryotes
protists
protist structure
eukaryotic cells
nucleus
organelles
sometimes live ones have mitchondria
when protists emerged
2 billion years ago
similar to protists
bacteria and cyanobacteria
volvox
several cells in a larger body with labor division
many are autotrophs
protists
many are photosynthetic
protists
how carbohydrates are made
light energy
water molecules
carbon dioxide
how protists move
temporarily extending structures by called psuedopodia
asexual reproduction
binary and multiple fission
sexual reproduction
conjugation (two protists join, exchange genetic information, and divide into 4 parts)
where organelles are from
endosymbiosis
3 types of protists
plant, animal, and fungi like
animal like protists
protozoa
unicellular
moves without cilia or flagella
psuedopodia
large, rounded cytoplasmic extensions that help moving and feeding
how psuedopodia form
cytoplasm flows forward to create a blunt, arm like extension
another name for psuedopodia movement
amoeboid movement
how sacodines feed
surround the food with protozoa, trap the food in a vesicle, release an enzyme to digest food
foraminifera
in oceans, many shells of calcium carbonate. the shells collect and over time create limestone
amebiasis
a fatal disease started in the intenstine and caused by an amoeba living there
paramecium
most common ciliate
pellicle
protein covering, cell membrane of the amoeba
contractile vaculoes
squeeze water out of the cell
2 types of ciliates in nuclei
macronucleus
micronucleus
ciliates
use conjugation and meiosis
algae structure
chloroplasts
photosynthetic
no true roots, stems or leaves
plantlike
gametangia
single-celled gamete chambers
algae
cholorphyll a
aquatic
have flagella
contain pyrenoids
synthesize and store starch
unicellular algae
phytoplankton
kelp
multicellular algae
thallus
plantlike body portion of seaweed
green algae
chlorophylls a and b
carotenoids
cell walls made of cellulose
corals and lichens
euglenoids
both plant and animal like, autotrophic, no cell wall.
move fast, live in digestive tracts of certain animals, abundant in water, flexible, have a pellicle.
euglena in the dark
heterotrophic
have chloroplasts
filamentous algae
have slender, rod shaped body - tows of cells joined end to end
example of filamentous algae
spirogyra
multicellular algae
have a leaf like body
example of a multicellular algae
ulva or maerocystis pryrifera (giant algae)
brown algae
multicellular, contain chlorophyls - mostly brown, mostly marine, plant like (seaweed/kelps), most common around rocky coasts.
structures of brown algae
thallus, holdfast, stipe, blade.
thallus of brown algae
is made up of all the other parts. the blade is the top part. stipe is the stem like part in the middle. the holdfast is used to anchor the kelp to something at the bottom of the ocean/sea.
diatoms
unicellular, form shells(the cell wall), made of 2 pieces that form together like a box and lid, used in toothpaste.
two types of diatoms
centric
pennate
centric diatoms
circular or triangular shells - marine environments
pennate diatoms
rectangular shaped - aquatic environments
all diatoms
major part of phytoplankton, producer in both aquatic and marine food webs (at the base of the food web), release oxygen.
Dinoflagellates
unicellular, 2 flagellum, cell walls are made of cellulose, most are photosynthetic autotrophs, some are red - produce toxins like red tide
red tide
always there, just not enough to cause problems. infects shellfish but not enough to make them sick. posions humans when they eat the infected fish. the poison makes humans sick and you can die.
what causes red tide?
when there are lots of dinoflagellates in the water and the temperature increases - the can divide/multiply a lot quicker. also when theres a lot of pollutions in the water.
golden algae
aquatic, can be used to create oil- petroleum deposits