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why was the catholic church forced to re-evalute itself with the council of trent
because there was a mass exodus of catholics over to Protestant
what 5 catholic beliefs were attacked by reformers
1) the doctrine of purgatory and the doctrine of particular judgement (indulgences) 2) devotion to/intercession of the saints (Mary included), 3) mandatory celibacy for the clergy and monostaics, 4) most of the sacraments 5) the authority of the pope
what were the 3 protestant reformation principles
exclusive authority of the bible (and first ecumenical councils + Augustine), salvation by faith and grace alone, priesthood of all believers
how did the doctrine of particular judgement develop and what did it say
developed from tradition not scripture, says that you are judged immediately upon death, really bad = hell, saintly = heaven, middle = purgatory where you purge off sins
how did the selling of indulgences work hand in hand with the doctrine of particular judgement
if you bought an indulgence idea was that you bought off some off your time in purgatory, became very corrupt
why did the reformers reject the doctrine of purgatory and doctrine of particular judgement
both not based in scripture, and if they did not exist than the selling of indulgences would not exist either and they did not like that practice either
why did the reformers reject devotion to saints
rejected the idea that saints could act as middle men to god, to intervene for you, idoltry
why did the reformers reject mandatory celibacy for clergy
not based in scripture and most of the apostles were married, you should aspire for celibacy but not mandatory
what are the only sacraments that protestants accept and why
eucharist (dont believe in trans-substantiation) and baptism because these are the only sacraments that Christ observed
in their own principles how did the protestants differ from the catholics believe could help you get over the total structural sin
they believed it was only the grace of god that would help you overcome total structural sinness, no other work needed, indulgences etc.
what does the protestant principle "priesthood of all believers" mean
does not accept apostolic succession. Catholics traditionally say that their is no salvation outside of the church because you need the mediation of the clergy & sacraments, protestant rejects that and says you can access the holy spirit in an inner relationship, less emphasis on sacraments.
what did protestants push for so that laypeople had more access to the spirit
translation of bible into vernacular
what was the council of trent called to respond to
3 protestant reform principles and 5 catholic beliefs that were under attack
what was decided at the council of Trent
rejection of Protestant heresies, reform in discipline and administration, reaffirmation in popular practices
what was the response of the church to the Protestant principle of "exlcusive authority of the bible"
- affirmed that on-going tradition was equal to bible
- ultimate primacy of papal authority
- afffirmed the church's interpretation scripture to be correct
- corrected, updated the Vulgate
what was the response of the church to the Protestant principle of "salvation only through grace"
- said that salvation occured through grace and works - confirmed Augustine's interpretation of Original Sin, saying that grace was needed first for salvation
what was the response of the church to the Protestant principle of "priesthood of all believers"
- confirmed the mediation of the church through the sacraments
- confirm the efficacy of the indulgences (and thus dorctrine of purgatory)
- affirmed "trans-substation" of eucharist
what were the catholic reforms in discipline and adminstration
- indulgences no longer saleable
- increased eduction of the clergy
- tightened moral in monasteries and created new orders
- emphasized the greater spiritual role of the clergy
- forbade non-residence bishops and the plurality of offices for bishops
what popular principles did the coucil reaffirm
promoted popular pilgrimage, added new feast days, cult of mary, verneation of the saints and relics, pushed for the creation more sacred art and music,
what were the general consquences of the Council
in a reaxctionary fashion the church rigified their own doctrine, they also rigified the church hieracy, at the expense of the laypeople and they pushed the church further away from any involvement in the world.
why was Vatican I convened
to place the church's position of liberalism, rathionalism, and materialism
what are the 3 clauses of the doctrine of infallibility
infallibility does not mean the pope is perfect or impecable
infallibily when speaking ex cathedra
infallible only in matter of faith and morals
what are the 3 sources of Catholic teaching
1) sacred scrpiture
2) sacred tradition / Magisterium - inspired writing of church fathers and councils
3) Papal teachings / Magisterium - tecahings of the popes through history, inflallible teachings of the popes, 19-20 century papal encyclicals
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