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what is the council sometimes also called

the council of the catholic counter-reformation

why was the catholic church forced to re-evalute itself with the council of trent

because there was a mass exodus of catholics over to Protestant

who invoked the council

Pope Paul III

what 5 catholic beliefs were attacked by reformers

1) the doctrine of purgatory and the doctrine of particular judgement (indulgences) 2) devotion to/intercession of the saints (Mary included), 3) mandatory celibacy for the clergy and monostaics, 4) most of the sacraments 5) the authority of the pope

what were the 3 protestant reformation principles

exclusive authority of the bible (and first ecumenical councils + Augustine), salvation by faith and grace alone, priesthood of all believers

where does the doctrine of purgatory come from

from catholic tradition, no mention in scripture

how did the doctrine of particular judgement develop and what did it say

developed from tradition not scripture, says that you are judged immediately upon death, really bad = hell, saintly = heaven, middle = purgatory where you purge off sins

how did the selling of indulgences work hand in hand with the doctrine of particular judgement

if you bought an indulgence idea was that you bought off some off your time in purgatory, became very corrupt

why did the reformers reject the doctrine of purgatory and doctrine of particular judgement

both not based in scripture, and if they did not exist than the selling of indulgences would not exist either and they did not like that practice either

why did the reformers reject devotion to saints

rejected the idea that saints could act as middle men to god, to intervene for you, idoltry

why did the reformers reject mandatory celibacy for clergy

not based in scripture and most of the apostles were married, you should aspire for celibacy but not mandatory

what are the only sacraments that protestants accept and why

eucharist (dont believe in trans-substantiation) and baptism because these are the only sacraments that Christ observed

in their own principles how did the protestants differ from the catholics believe could help you get over the total structural sin

they believed it was only the grace of god that would help you overcome total structural sinness, no other work needed, indulgences etc.

what does the protestant principle "priesthood of all believers" mean

does not accept apostolic succession. Catholics traditionally say that their is no salvation outside of the church because you need the mediation of the clergy & sacraments, protestant rejects that and says you can access the holy spirit in an inner relationship, less emphasis on sacraments.

what did protestants push for so that laypeople had more access to the spirit

translation of bible into vernacular

what was the council of trent called to respond to

3 protestant reform principles and 5 catholic beliefs that were under attack

what was decided at the council of Trent

rejection of Protestant heresies, reform in discipline and administration, reaffirmation in popular practices

what was the response of the church to the Protestant principle of "exlcusive authority of the bible"

- affirmed that on-going tradition was equal to bible
- ultimate primacy of papal authority
- afffirmed the church's interpretation scripture to be correct
- corrected, updated the Vulgate

what was the response of the church to the Protestant principle of "salvation only through grace"

- said that salvation occured through grace and works - confirmed Augustine's interpretation of Original Sin, saying that grace was needed first for salvation

what was the response of the church to the Protestant principle of "priesthood of all believers"

- confirmed the mediation of the church through the sacraments
- confirm the efficacy of the indulgences (and thus dorctrine of purgatory)
- affirmed "trans-substation" of eucharist

what were the catholic reforms in discipline and adminstration

- indulgences no longer saleable
- increased eduction of the clergy
- tightened moral in monasteries and created new orders
- emphasized the greater spiritual role of the clergy
- forbade non-residence bishops and the plurality of offices for bishops

what popular principles did the coucil reaffirm

promoted popular pilgrimage, added new feast days, cult of mary, verneation of the saints and relics, pushed for the creation more sacred art and music,

what were the general consquences of the Council

in a reaxctionary fashion the church rigified their own doctrine, they also rigified the church hieracy, at the expense of the laypeople and they pushed the church further away from any involvement in the world.

why was Vatican I convened

to place the church's position of liberalism, rathionalism, and materialism

what was the major decision of Vatican I

it defined papal infallibility as dogma

what are the 3 clauses of the doctrine of infallibility

infallibility does not mean the pope is perfect or impecable
infallibily when speaking ex cathedra
infallible only in matter of faith and morals

what are the 3 sources of Catholic teaching

1) sacred scrpiture
2) sacred tradition / Magisterium - inspired writing of church fathers and councils
3) Papal teachings / Magisterium - tecahings of the popes through history, inflallible teachings of the popes, 19-20 century papal encyclicals

what is Magisterium


what are pope encycolpedias called

papal encyclicals

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