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Psychology Exam 3
Terms in this set (195)
Cognition refers to
how people think.
Solving problems like the hobbit and orc problem in your textbook, which requires you to make changes and carry out several steps in order to reach a specific goal, are examples of a problem of
Which class of problems involves discovering the relations among the parts of the problem?
People often assume that it is necessary to use all the numerical information provided in a problem in order to solve the problem. In reality, numerical information sometimes makes it more difficult to solve a problem because the information
may be irrelevant
If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time, you are evidencing
a mental set
People often find it difficult to solve a problem by using a familiar object in a novel way because of
When Alaina is working on her bicycle, she brings her entire tool kit out on the driveway and starts pulling wrenches from it at random, trying them until she finds one that fits. Alaina's approach when she is working on her bicycle could be BEST describes as
trial and error
A mental "rule of thumb" for problem solving is reffered to as
Which of the following is NOT a common heuristic for problem-solving?
trial and error
Seventeen-year-old Ashley is driving her brother's car when she has her first-ever flat tire. She realizes that she needs to find where the spare tire, the jack, and other tools are stored in the car, remove the flat tire, and install the spare tire. Ashley is approaching the problem by
When Graham is printing copies from the computer in the computer classroom, the paper keeps jamming in the machine. He takes the paper out of the paper tray, fans it, and then flips it over, so the other side of the paper feeds first. This is the way he solves similar problems on the photocopy machine at the office where he works. In this case, Graham's method of solving the problem is consistent with the problem-solving heuristic known as
searching for analogies.
The _________ effect occurs when solutions emerge for a problem after a period of not consciously thinking about the problem.
Nisbett and colleagues suggest that a holistic type of thinking is one that focuses on
context and relationships among the elements in a field.
The process that involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them is known as
Research shows that when consumers have a very high number of products to choose from, they are
likely to purchase no items.
According to Simon's theory of bounded rationality, people tend to use
simple strategies in decision-making that focus only on a few facets of available options and often result in irrational decisions that are less than optimal.
According to research, conscious deliberation about a decision leads to greater satisfaction only when decisions are
Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which instances come to mind is called the
Zachary's friend asks how well Zachary gets along with his younger brother. Zachary thinks about how irritating his younger brother was yesterday and the big fight they had as a result, and tells his friend that he doesn't get along with his brother at all. In this instance, Zachary's response is consistent with
the availability heuristic.
The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to
estimate the probability of an event based on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.
Autumn has been figure skating since she was five years old. She has never placed higher than third in any of the competitions she has been in, but she is still convinced that she will be able to become a professional figure skater in a few years. Her coach and her parents have tried to tell her that not many people make it as professional skaters, but Autumn is convinced that she can beat the odds. In this case Autumn is
apparently ignoring base rates.
Walter mistakenly estimates that the probability of two separate events occurring at the same time is higher than the probability of either event occurring at its own. Walter's mistake is an example of
the conjunction fallacy.
The belief that an event is more likely to occur if it has not occurred recently is consistent with the
Loss aversion occurs when
losses loom larger than gains of an equal size.
The gambler's fallacy reflects the influence of the
Evolutionary psychologists suggest that when people have to make quick decisions, they tend to
use relatively simple heuristics.
When tested on a Binet-Simon scale, Ada is found to have a mental age of 8. This means
that her performance was comparable to the average 8 year old child.
(Mental age/chronological age) x 100 yields
an intelligence quotient.
Shawna's IQ score was calculated using the formula developed by Lewis Terman, and the result was 92. This indicates that
Shawna's chronological age is greater than her mental age.
If your score falls at the 75th percentile on a standardized test, which of the following is an accurate interpretation?
75% of the people who took the test scored at or below your score.
The term that refers to the measurement of a test that examines whether the measurement is consistent is
If a psychological test does, in fact, measure what it was designed to measure, the test has
In a normal distribution of information, MOST people will be found
in the center of the distribution
Modern IQ tests have a mean of __ and a standard deviation of _____.
Monica recently completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and was told that her deviation IQ score fell at the 50th percentile. This means that
Monica's IQ score would be 100.
Coleman is currently 30 years old. When he was 15 years old, he took an intelligence test and was told that his IQ score was 110. If Coleman retakes the intelligence test now, he would likely discover that his current IQ score
is similar to his previous score of 110.
Recent research suggests that given equivalent IQ scores, students who think they are talented tend to _________ on their school work than those with negative opinions of their own ability.
Most intelligence tests over the years have tended to stress
cognitive abilities related to academics.
Stanovich argues that IQ tests do not predict rational thinking because they do NOT measure
critical thinking and the ability to weigh evidence.
In which of the following cases is the correlation between IQ scores the HIGHEST?
fraternal twins reared together.
The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is higher than that between fraternal twins reared together suggests that intellectual development is
influenced more by genetics than by environmental factors.
The consensus among MOST researchers is that the heritability of intelligence is
The Flynn effect is the finding that
performance on IQ tests seems to be rising steadily and consistently over time
Most explanations for the Flynn effect revolve around
a variety of environmental factors
The term used to refer to genetically determined limits the IQ is
According to the reaction range model, children
raised in high-quality environments will have higher IQ scores than children raised in poor-quality environments.
According the Leon Kamin, _________ differences in IQ scores are most likely to be heritable, and ________ differences are most likely to be the result of environmental factors.
According to Robert Sternberg, intelligence can be divided into three major parts:
analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.
According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is efficient at processing information and who performs well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities should score high in
Cheryl has always performed well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities, but she doesn't seem to be able to use her skills to solve common,everyday problems. According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Cheryl shows
high analytical intelligence but lower practical intelligence.
Which of the following is NOT one of the eight types of intelligence described by Gardner?
Leticia is a prima ballerina with a New York ballet company. According to Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, Leticia is likely to score high in which of the following?
Which psychologist concluded that humans exhibit eight largely independent types of intelligence?
The ability to generate ideas that are original, novel, and useful defines
Homeostasis is a state of
Needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain direction are known as
According to drive theory of motivation, if you drink water when you are thirsty, drinking results in
drive reduction and restores physiological equilibrium
An external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior is
While _________ theories of motivation emphasize internal factors, ________ theories emphasize external factors.
What do the following have in common: Achievement, autonomy, affiliation, and dominance?
they are all social motives
Cannon and Washburn (1912) proposed that hunger is caused by
In general, contemporary theories regarding brain regulation of hunger tend to focus on which of the following?
Of the brain structures listed below, which on do scientists currently believe plays a larger role than the other structures in the modulation of hunger?
The hormone produced by fat cells that tends to diminish feelings of hunger when at high levels is
Sensory-specific satiety refers to
the phenomenon that when there are few foods available, the appeal of them can decline quickly.
When Harvey was a child, the only time he ate turnips was when he was at his grandmother's house for Christmas dinner. Now, as an adult, Harvey loves the taste of turnips because he associated them with Christmas at his grandmother's house. In this example, Harvey's preference for the taste of turnips could BEST be explained by using the principle of
Masters and Johnson conducted groundbreaking research concerning
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of the phases of the human sexual response?
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Peter and his wife are having sex when Peter experiences a series of muscular contractions throughout his pelvis. Based on research conducted by Masters and Johnson,
Peter will be relatively unresponsive to sexual stimulation for a period of time following his orgasm.
The reduction in sexual tension during the resolution phase of the human sexual response is generally relatively slow or more gradual
if the individual did not experience an orgasm.
______- Theory asserts that a species' mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest in the way of time, energy, and survival risk to maximize reproductive potential
research into gender differences in sexual behavior shows that, in comparison to men, women are _______ likely to consent to sex with someone that they have known for a brief period of time and show ______ interest in sexual activity.
Evolutionary theory suggests that women place more emphasis than men on the _____ of a potential mate.
Alfred Kinsey argued that homosexuality and heterosexuality are
end points on a "sexual orientation" continuum.
Research concerning the upbringing and childhood experiences of homosexuals has NOT supported_______ theories.
psychoanalytic and behavioral
The fact that identical twins are more likely to share sexual orientation than fraternal twins suggests that sexual orientation is
in part genetic
several lines of research suggest that _______ during critical periods of prenatal development may influence sexual orientation as an adult.
The need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, and meet high standards of excellence is referred to as
an achievement motive
Breana is telling a story about a character on a TAT card. In her story, Breana focuses on the fact that the character is daydreaming about being promoted to a position of high status at work. Breana's answer suggest that she MOST likely has
a high need for achievement
A person's achievement behavior is influenced by all of the following EXCEPT
the person's level of affiliation motivation
People high in the need for achievement prefer moderately challenging tasks compared to either very easy or very difficult tasks because
succeeding on moderate tasks is possible and satisfying.
The three components that any complete treatment of emotion should include are
cognitive, behavioral, physiological.
The subjective conscious experience of an emotion describes the
In studying the cognitive components of emotions, psychologists generally rely on which of the following?
subjects' verbal reports
The observation that one individual may experience an airplane flight as an anxiety-arousing situation while another individual may experience it as a routine event reflects that emotion involves
a subjective conscious experience.
The physiological component of emotion is directly associated with the functioning of the
autonomic nervous system
Research on the role of the amygdala in the modulation of emotions has focused mainly on which of the following emotions?
The thalamus simultaneously transmits information capable of eliciting emotion to both the
amygdala and cerebral cortex
Body language is directly related to the ______ component of emotion.
The ______ component of an emotion consists of the "body language" used to express the emotion.
The idea that muscles of the face send information to the brain and that this affects the emotion we feel is known as
the facial feedback hypothesis
Research by Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen indicates that subjects are generally successful in identifying all EXCEPT which of the following emotions?
According to the James-Lange theory, one's conscious experience of emotion occurs
after autonomic arousal
The Cannon-Bard theory of emotions focuses on the _____ determinants of emotions.
Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations BEST represents Schachter's two-factor theory?
"my shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire"
An individual's personal perception of his or her overall happiness and life satisfaction is referred to as
subjective well being
Which of the following BEST characterizes the correlation between income and subjective feelings of happiness?
positive but weak
The correlation between age and happiness is
Which of the following variables would be considered the BEST predictor of happiness
Research evidence suggest that happiness depends more on____ factors than on _____ factors.
An individual's unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits is known as
While many of the personality traits a person has may be relatively common, the overall combination of traits exhibited by that person is unique. This relates to the ______ aspect of personality.
People high in ________ tend to have a more positive outlook on life while people high in _______ tend to be more impulsive.
Janelle is suspicious and uncooperative. Her friends think she is a boastful person who is seldom sympathethic. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Janelle would probably score
low in agreeableness.
According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in _______ tend to be diligent, disciplined, well organized, and punctual.
Psychodynamic personality theories focus on
unconscious mental forces.
The id is
the primitive, instinctive component of personality
The component of personality that operates according to the reality principle is the
A person who tends to be selfish, demanding, and oblivious to the rights of other people would appear to have a stronger _____than _______.
According to psychoanalytic theory , a person who is conservative, strict, and moralistic is strongly influenced by her
Psychoanalytic theory stresses all of the following EXCEPT
conscious thought patterns
Finding ways to meet instinctual needs and still take into account the conditions of the external, social world defines the _______, the basic operating theme of the _____--.
According to Freud, unresolved unconscious conflicts often produce
The largely unconscious reactions used to protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt are
When people give a false but plausible excuse to justify their unacceptable behavior, they are using
While cleaning up after her party last night, Angela forgot to put the leftover crab dip in the refrigerator. When she discovered the now-spoiled dip in the morning, Angela said she didn't mind having to throw it out because it wasn't that good anyway. MOST likely, Angela is using
When people attempt to bolster their self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group, they are using
Defense mechanisms combat feelings of anxiety and guilt
The process of pushing distressing thoughts into the unconscious and keeping them there is known as
John worries about his tendency toward abusing animals, so he joins the Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. John's behavior can be viewed as an example of
Freud used the term "sexual" in his psycho sexual stages of development to mean
any pleasure-giving urge
According to Freud, a person may become fixated at a particular psychosexual stage because of
either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs.
The idea that a male child desires his mother and fears his father illustrates the
The Freudian period that begins with puberty is the
Smoking, overeating, and habitual gum chewing could BEST be described as resulting from fixation in the _________ stage.
The crucial developmental task associated with the anal stage is
When anthropologists compare ancient artifacts from South America, Europe, and Australia, they often find similarities among the images that are depicted.Base on Jung's analytical psychology, some of these apparent similarities may stem from
the collective unconscious
The central aspect of Adler's theory of personality is that people
strive to adapt and master life's challenges
According to Alfred Adler, overcompensation may be found in those who
have an inferiority complex
Which of the following definitions of "personality" best reflects the views of B.F. Skinner?
a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations
Skinner would explain why one student responds positively to receiving a B on a test while another student responds negatively to a B by noting that
the students have different histories of reinforcement and punishment
Social-cognitive theory differs from Skinner's approach in giving more wight to
Mr. Gorst is a very patient individual who always has time for any questions his children might ask. If Mr. Gorst's children grow up to be patient individuals, the development of this personality trait would be BEST explained using the concept of
The belief that one has the ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is referred to as
In explaining behavior, social learning theorist Walter Mischel is most interested in the influence of
Humanistic personality theories focus on
an individual's freedom and potential for growth
The self or self-concept is the central focus of
Roger's person-centered theory
According to Rogers, parents who give their children affection both when the children meet and also when they fail to meet expectations provide their children with
unconditional love or affection
Which theorist argues that people have a strong need for affection, love, and acceptance from others?
Abraham Maslow called the need to fulfill one's potential the need for
Kevin has been working for the same company for the past 15 years. He earns a good salary, and he feels his coworkers are "family". However, lately he has begun to feel that his supervisors are not giving him the recognition or respect that he deserves, so he has been considering looking for another job. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Kevin's thoughts of changing jobs may well be motivated by frustrated
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a self-actualizing person?
Having a strong need to affiliate with many people
According to Hans Eysenck, personality is largely
Research in behavioral genetics has shown that identical twins reared apart often have similar personality traits. This result suggests that ________ contribute(s) to personality.
both genetic inheritance and environmental factors
___________ is a personality trait marked by an inflated sense of self-worth and a tendency to exploit other people.
Terror management theory asserts that much of our behavior is motivated by our needs
for self-preservation and preserve our self-esteem
Cross-cultural research suggests that the Big Five personality traits
are fairly consistent across cultures
The American cultural conception of self results in children
developing an independent view of the self and defining themselves in terms of personal attributes.
If you need a personality inventory capable of measuring a person's degree of psychopathology, you would probably use
the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
The idea that a person's unconscious needs will determine how he or she perceives relatively unstructured stimuli is the basis for
Person perception refers to
the process of forming impressions of others
Research on physical attractiveness has shown that
we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people
Joel and Kirk both work with a stock brokerage firm. Joel is considered to be extremely attractive, and Kirk is considered to be average in appearance. Based on research that has investigated the effects of physical appearance in person perception, you should predict that
Joel will tend to receive better performance evaluations than Kirk, for equivalent work.
Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group are BEST described as
If many Americans were to believe that all Muslims are terrorists, it would be BEST described as
When people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they actually seen, we say they have experienced
the illusory correlation
Attribution refers to
inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior and the behavior of others
When the causes of a person's behavior are attributed to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings, it is
an internal attribution
Jane's eight-year-old son brought a note home from school today stating that he was involved in a fight at recess. Which of the following is an example of an external attribution that Jane might make to explain her son's behavior?
the other child probably started the fight and he was protecting himself
Weiner suggested that when making attributions for success and failure, people focus on the _____ dimension concerning causes that contribute to the behavior.
Observers tend to attribute actors' behavior to _______ factors and actors tend to attribute their own behavior to ______ factors.
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as
Individuals from Eastern cultures tend to perceive the world more as more ________ forming complex, causal attributions about individuals and events.
According to the ______ we tend to date people who are similar to ourselves in physical attractiveness.
The tendency of males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness to select each other as partners is reffered to as the
Couples with _________ personalities are rates as __________ satisfied with their relationships.
The fact that we tend to like people who like us illustrates which of the following principles involved in interpersonal attraction?
Which of the following is a characteristic of passionate love?
Steve and Stacey have been a couple for several years. Their love is characterized by warm feeling and affection. They enjoy spending time together and describe themselves as lovers and friends. Steve and Stacey's love is BEST described as
A romantic relationship characterized by high levels of commitment and intimacy is BEST described as reflecting
Sternberg proposed that the ______ component(S) of love peaks early in a relationship and then decreases
Good looks and physical proximity are ______ important in relationships that start on the internet.
When asked to rate men who would be short-term partners' women valued what trait?
The beliefs people have concerning the object of an attitude describes the ______ component of an attitude.
Which of the following is NOT one of the crucial dimensions of attitudes?
Expertise and trustworthiness are two factors that affect the __- of a source of a persuasive communication.
In general, messages that present _______ arguments are effective in persuasion because that style of argument tends to increase the credibility of the source.
When advertisers use extremely attractive models to demonstrate their products, they are relying, in part, on the power of ________ to change consumers' attitudes.
According to dissonance theory, how do people usually reduce dissonance?
by changing their cognitions
According to the elaboration likelihood model of attitude change, when persuasion depends on factors such as attractiveness and credibility of the source or emotional responses by the receiver, it is referred to as the
Asch's "line study" clearly demonstrated that people ____ alter their behavior so that it conforms to the behavior of others.
Asch found that two key factors influencing conformity were
group size and group unanimity.
Subjects in ______ study concerning ______ were instructed to administer increasingly strong electric shocks to another subject when the other subject made a mistake.
The "typical" subject in Milgram's study experiences ________ psychological distress ________- to administer stronger electric shocks.
considerable; but continued
The primary explanations suggested to explain the behavior of the prison guards and prisoners in the Stanford Prison Simulation was
social roles and situational factors.
Which of the following BEST fits the social psychological definition of a group?
the board of trustees of a college
The bystander effect refers to
people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups.
Diffusion of responsibility refers to the
tendency of others to assume that someone else will take responsibility in a crisis
A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in group's dominant view and shifting it to a greater extreme is known as
Group discussion resulting in strengthening a group's dominant view and shifting it to a greater extreme is known as
The risky shift phenomenon is MOST closely associated with
The group polarization effect implies that
when most of the group members initially favor a cautious decision, discussion will cause the group to adopt an even more cautious decision.
According to Janis, what is a key cause of groupthink?
strong group cohesion
Which of the following is not a component of prejudice?
When social identity is threatened a common stategy is
show favoritism for members of the in-group.
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