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Heritage Exam 3
Terms in this set (119)
Humanism, oratories, spirituali
What were the three renewal movements before/during protestant reformation
Erasmus and Cisneros
Two major humanists
Produced the polyglot bible - contained the OT in Aramaic and the Septuigant and NT in Greek
A movement before Protestant reformation that especially flourished in Italy. It was a reaction against increasingly corrupt papacy that increased lay spirituality.
A focus on reform through individual piety and justification through faith
Diet of Nuremburg (1524)
Arose with the argument for "wine and women"
Advice Concerning Reform of the Church
In 1537- Catholic church takes an honest look at abuses.
Writes a document called Advice Concerning Reform of the church.
It was frank about its abuses, such as indulgences being misused.
Other abuses include priests having women and children on the side.
Still had no interest in theological issues.
Tried to fix the "health" of the catholic church.
Ignatius of Loyola and Society and Jesus
What was the three defenses against Protestantism
A list made by the Catholics that said what books were dangerous and should not be read.
Humanist, reformation writers, and scientists were on the list.
A method used by the Catholics to root out heretics and the jews in spain to make sure they were actually converted and not just faking; required that everyone confessed at least once a year
Ignatius of loyola
Wrote a "training manual" called The Spiritual Exercises; created the Jesuits
Created by Ignatius of Loyola, they took basic monastic vows but added a specific vow of loyalty to the pope
Council of Trent
It was a counter to Protestantism; there was a concern for unity and uniformity in doctrine and discipline, emphasized faith and works and scripture and tradition and settled dispute on the 7 sacaraments
Scripture- vulgate, tradition, church
Justification- faith is part of it, but works are also part
Saints- protestants believed that catholocism encourage idolatry. They decided on Venerate
Sacraments- there is still 7 and they work by doing
precursors of the english reformation
english performer. challenged the teaching on transubstantiation, wanted doctrines to be more specially located in scripture.
Anticlericalism- against church hierarchy. wants church to improve.
Transubstantiation is, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, the change by which the bread and the wine used in the sacrament of the Eucharist become, not merely as a sign or a figure, but also in actual reality the body and blood of Jesus ...
-Humanism- Erasmus was widely read in England. His new testament was influential. Taught in England for a few years.
beginning in 1521. People knew of Luther's teachings. Group of theologians who were interested in Luther's ideas. Met at white horse inn and called themselves the little German. William Tindale- produced a new testament in 1525 that was based largely on luthers german translation. He was burned as a heretic.
4 phases of english reformation:
1. Henry VII- political phase
2. Edward IV- real protestant phase
3. Mary- catholic phase
4. Elizabeth- Middle May
King who broke away from Rome because he wanted a divorce and was not allowed to have one.
wants a divorce because his wife catherine of Aragon didn't give him a son.
1529- parliament issues "act of restraint of appeals" which says rome can't stand as an appellate court.
1544- parliament issues Act of Supremacy which says the sovereign of England is the head of the church in england. The pops isn't head, the king is.
1538- Henry is excommunicated and everyone under his rule. Henry=defender of the faith.
1539- six articles. church in england creates new church apart from rome but still catholic in teachings and practice. Mainly just an attack on the monasteries.
Henry makes a catholic church that no longer recognizes the pope.
King Henry's son who worked to turn England more Protestant by publishing confessions and working slowly. his reign is very short- only 6 years.
protestant leaders help the young boy. one in particular is Thomas Cranmner. He is influenced by Zwingli and Calvin. English church becomes protestant and is evident in 2 documents: 42 articles and The Book of Common Prayer.
King Henry's daughter who took throne after Edward. She reunited England with Rome and actively persecuted protestants (called Bloody Mary)
tried to undo everything that Edward had done to advance protestantism.
1554- england is officially absolved by rome (unexcommunicated)
marian exiles- convinced protestants from england going to european continent who went to netherlands, zurich and geneva. most returned as calvinists.
Calvinism- predestination, says that there is a spiritual presence of God in the Eucharist. Marks of the church: when the gospel is preached correctly and when the sacraments are performed. Calvin says the church also has to have discipline.
Mary dies in 1558.
King Henry's daughter who took throne after Mary. She tried to create a "middle ground" to merge Protestantism doctrine and Catholicism practice.
Anglicanism- Worshiped in English (vernacular)
wore vestments (robes) which didn't change much from Marys reign
Apostolic succession- tracing all ordained priests, bishops and popes back to the apostles. Without pope.
Made Puritans unhappy because of:
kneeling at communion.
Prophesying- meetings to hear someone preached. Elizabeth began to suppress the prophesying.
Compromise proposed by Elizabeth to merge Catholicism and Protestantism
Mass said in English instead of Latin
Clergy wore Traditional vestments
Liturgy vague of Eucharist
What were some of the compromises made by the Elizabethan Settlement
Many Protestants had fled to Geneva and had been influenced by Calvin and his works there; they then modified some of his ideas
How did Calvin have an influence on Protestants
The Pilgrims who were headed by John Smith for a while and landed in Plymouth. Said the church had to be the true church if it was separated from the Anglicans (robert browne)
Those who wanted to worship the way they wanted to but did not want to establish religious freedom for all
Group that came to the same conclusion the Anabaptists did, but independently from their movement; important people: John Smith and Thomas Helwys (religious toleration)
First Baptist in England; self-baptists
Baptist; Baptized by John Smith, urged full and complete religious tolerance (which was the first time this was proposed)
The movement that every person had an "inner light" that needed to be discovered; this movement said this inner light was the ultimate authority; did not believe in original sin, clergy, or sacraments (Enthusiast- christ is within us)
Founder of the Quakers
No original sin
separation of Church and state
What were the main teachings of the Quakers
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony created by non-separatists (Massachusetts Bay Company) Under the leadership of John Winthrop, the colony was created to provide the world with a model Christian society. The colony was created in 1630 and it was governed through a General Court selected by church members
Covenant (use of OT)
What were the three characteristics of Modified Calvinism
How do you know if you're saved?
signed of "election"- things if you're saved. have to have a conversion experienced if you weren't elected
questions for modified calivinism
A characteristic of Modified Calvinism; looking for ways to describe themselves as elect or ways in which people saw they were on the "right track" to salvation
A characteristic of Modified Calvinism; it used the theological concept of covenant as an organizing principle for Christian theology. Christian Theology that stressed that a agreement was made by God with humans with the death of Jesus for the salvation of mankind. The theology differs from sect to sect, some assert that salvation is granted to all, some that its is earned and others that it can be achieved by faith alone.
if you're not elect its good to be part of the covenant community. you are accepted through baptism.
A characteristic of Modified Calvinism; "Scripture alone", stressed the importance of scripture and thought sermons over sacaraments
Woman who opposed preparationism. She was accused of "antinomianism" ( the belief that the Gospel frees Christians from required obedience to laws. being against the law); appealed to the spirit for authority
Woman who agreed with Hutcheson. She was a Quaker who was banned from Boston and who was hanged on her return; she gave birth to a still-born which was used as evidence against the deformity of her theology
First champion of pure, religious liberty, he did not have a high opinion of organized church, said the Natives were true owners of the land, created the first baptist church in American and established Rhode Island where anyone can worship whatever they wanted
the agreement to baptize babies even though their parents did not have a big "conversion experience" which was needed to be a part of community.
kids could be baptized but parents could not be part of the community.
Sermons that said "we're all sinning and God is going to punish us for it!"
A controversy over if it was alright for missionaries to accept and step into the culture of the nation they were in to make converting people easier.
Robert De Nobili- dressed like a guru adopted tht tiel of the teacher of wisdom. dittoing the christian message.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A treaty in which there was a line drawn separating Protugese lands and Spain lands
Influential missionary in India and japan
Virgin of Guadalupe
Woman who gave the iconography of a dark-skinned woman, gave the natives a shrine
Wrote about the nature of the universe and proposed that the math of the planets didn't add up, proposed heliocentric worldview (sun at the center)
influenced the enlightenment.
is a recording of the heavens
Confirmed, through observation, Copernicus' claims of a heliocentric worldview. had advantage of telescopes, put on the catholic index in 1616 because it was "false and unholy to catholic scripture"
Proposed the Scientific Method which condemned deductive reasoning (start with theory then prove it) and proposed the inductive method (start with observations and then create the theory)
Proposed the laws of nature that he said the universe operated by, mechanical God-view
Law of gravity- Said that everything both in heaven and on earth operates with the same law.
Mechanical metaphor- leads people to think about God himself. Which leads to Enlightenment.
Organic metaphor- before the scientific revolution people understood the cosmos in general as dependent on God breathing life into it.
4 characteristics of the Enlightenment
Religion based purely on reason, "Watchmaker God"
The characteristic of Enlightenment which means that ultimate truth comes to us by using our brain
The characteristic of Enlightenment which means that the universe is not unpredictable (comet)
The characteristic of Enlightenment which means that there was a potential for improvement and it was good
The characteristic of Enlightenment which treasures observation and experimentation over grand philosophical theories
Liberal Christian Theology
religion based neither on reason nor revelation
act in a way that you would want to be universal for everyone
Man who believed that cultured people have turned away from religion because people have filled up their lives with other things, he also believes that people do not really know what religion is which is "God consciousness"
True religion is the absolute dependence on a force that is greater than ourselves. As humans we all have this sense that we are not self sufficient but we keep trying to live like we are self sufficient.
A God exists
Humans need to worship Him
He has an ethnic law
Humans needed to repent
God gives praises for good and punishes evil
What are the main ideas of Deism
The idea (presented by Schleiermacher) that Christ was fully dependent on God, this is what makes Christianity unique
says history always corrects itself and that's how we know that Christianity is the highest form of religion.
focuses on the "kingdom of god" Christianity can be determined on the benefit that it gives to its adherence. For Christianity, when jesuss words are taken to the heart the person becomes a better moral human being.
Adolf Von Harnaick
disagreeing with hagel, all of the technical terms are a far cry to what jesus actually preached.
faith and risk. Says you cant prove that Christianity is superior. You have to just have faith. If I am capable of grasping god objectively I do not believe. But precisely because I cannot do this I must believe.
Christianity cant be turned into science. If I can prove it then there is no reason to believe.
Wars of Religion
Pietism (the religion of the heart) was a direct reaction to..
An increase in number of people living in cities who were displaced, often sought a heart-felt church to feel a part of a community
Lutheranism (justification by faith, priesthood of believers- everyone has equal access to god
Mysticism- catholic spirituality, experience intense interactions with god, union with god before heaven.
Puritanism- moral code, experience of grace.
Pietism has it's roots in what three sects
Key leader in Pietism, urged small groups, personal connections and wrote the Pia Desideria.
concerned with lax morality- people aren't taking church seriously.
collegia pietatis- meetings of christians who were more serious. similar to in home bible studies nowadays.
Pia Desideria "pious desires"
-Scripture as a part of public and private piety
-More participation of laity
-Ministerial training- growing spiritually. more than just memorizing and theology
-Controversies- conducted with love.
-Preaching focus on inner spiritual life
Teachings of the Pia Desideria
Student of Spencer's
Began missionary activity for Protestants, primarily to India, and used humanitarian efforts (building orphanages and hospitals), Halle University. He emphasized a "conversion experience".
Moment before and after you are a christian (despair and joy)
control over university at Halle- writes strict rules of living for students
bridge between pietism and evangelicalism
Met the Moravians and offered them protection and to join the lutheran church. they eventually passed on their knowledge to John Wesley
the lords house. fugitives from Moravia
legacy of Pietism:
1. luterhanism thats not as dogmatic
2. missionary activity
3. heart of evangelical revival.
conversion- becoming converted is essential.
activism- spreading gospel and social missions.
biblicism- strong desire to justify everything with scripture.
cross centered- focus on jesus and his death most.
Man who founded Methodism.
not willing to settle for light hearted christianity.
served in georgia as missionary pastor. encounters a moravian who makes him question his salvation. goes back to england. answers his own questions.
Oxford Holy Club
Organization founded by John Wesley in which they answered 22 questions every meeting. keeps yourself accountable
Which sect had the greatest influence on John Wesley?
John Wesley's conversion experience, he said his "heart strangely warmed" and said feelings were central to salvation
becoming holy, set apart
Belief that agreed with Calvin on most things except predestination - said humans have free will
The idea that there was a "second" experience (like a conversion experience) that was the point where a Christian learned to stop sinning
Most famous revivalist of the 18th century, invented revivalism, had to preach outside.
cooperating partners with Wesley. very active evangelist.
moving people by emotion in an attempt to bring them to a conversion experience
first great awakening
build up of impulse of pietism
revival teaching of George Whitfield.
Man who proposed the Great Awakening and had 3 conversion experiences
people weeped, prayed for each other, expressing their concern for spirituality.
writes "a faithful narrative of Gods surprising work"
promoter, preacher, theologian and defender of the awakening.
also author of 1746 a "Treaties on Religious Affections" says there is nothing offensive to other christians of people who get very emotional in church.
his wife was converted and 4 year old girl named Phebe.
presbyterian. wants to keep awakening moving along. trains ministers through the Log College. Sets stage for princeton.
Preached "The Danger of an Unconverted Ministry" and has it published. This sermon points out preachers who have never even had a conversion experience themselves.
results of first great awakening
-A modest and brief growth in church membership.
-Increasing split between those who are in favor of the revival and those who aren't. New light and Old lights.
-institutionalized education (Brown College, queens college and Dartmouth.)
second great awakening
at yale college in 1802, the college students were being converted... new theme: conversions don't have to be emotional.
revival in 1801 in kentucky. was a camp meeting with more than 25,000 people. becomes new way of doing revival.
announce meeting month in advance.
multi day affair with people from everywhere
have communication, sermons, and prayer.
baptist and methodist denominations benefited from this new practice.
baptist benefits from camp meetings
did well because their ministry was bivocational (having more than one job, ex: the preacher was also a farmer and the church didn't have to pay him to be a full time pastor). Baptists also had a broader theology. They believed on one main thing: believer's baptism.
methodist benefit from camp meetings
grow during this period because their ministry was based on circuit. Their ministers never settled down. Kept going from church to church to church and would come back around. A few ministers can minister to a large population. Also did well because of their arminianism (free will..if you believe it right now you can be saved..dont have to wait on God to save you)
Colloquy at Ratisbon
Meeting in which Charles V chose 3 Catholic and 3 Protestant theologians to meet and defend theology; came to an agreement on justification but would not agree on transubstantiation or confession to priests
theme of camp meetings and revivals
Themes of camp meetings and revivals:
1. cooperation between denominations
3. "jerks"- people manifesting a physical reaction to being overcome by grief, dread and fear of hell right before you are converted.
most famous preacher of the second great awakening. 1830s. tried to think of a way to keep it going. Wanted to make revivals understandable. To explain them in a logical way. Had techniques that helped him to convert people. The anxious bench was one technique- used for people who weren't converted to sit close to the preacher and be more involved in the sermon. Armenian.
Wrote New Measures- human role in creating revival is necessary.
Change in the century- edwards said it was a change in God. Finney said constitutional means- if you do your job well as a preacher you can create revivals. Similar to plants. You have to plant the seed but God makes it grow.
-protestant missions in America
-education (Sunday school, publishers devoted to spiritual literature, etc)
-moral reform. Evident in temperance movement, morality centered on alcohol.
-humanitarian efforts. Orphanages, handicapped services, slavery concern.
Social Impact of 2nd great awakening:
4 characteristics of evangelicalism:
man who created the confession box
the original Latin translation - "inspired" which is as good as coming from God's mouth
religious order for priests
The idea of getting righteousness by belief but then this belief also makes you want to produce works of righteousness
Discussed the corruptions in the church but not theological isues
What was the advice concerning the reform of the church
edict of nantes
Issued by Henry of Navarre, granted Protestants/Huguenots freedom
defended the use of reason in the interpretation of Scripture, value of forms in religion and other aspects of Elizabethan compromise
Controversy that began to associate the clothes worn by clergy to Queen Mary
a person who was in the church and whose job it was to just deliver the sermon
meetings after a sermon in which the people would come together and discuss the sermon
Stay in England and risk persecution
Flee to Netherlands
Flee to America
What were the three choices Puritans had in England
The Puritans founded what university
A revival of Augustine theology that said without grace we cannot please God
Assumptions of the Royal Society
God was a great architect
We could know and discover the order of the universe because of the profound parallel between human and divine reason
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