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Chapter 4 Rocks: Mineral Mixtures
Terms in this set (92)
continual process by which new rock forms from old rock
naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals and organic matter
the process by which sediment is removed from its source
the process by which material is laid down
the minerals a rock contains
the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rock's grains
intrusive igneous rock
rock that is formed when magma pushes into surrounding rock beneath the Earth's surface
extrusive igneous rock
rock that forms when magma erupts onto the Earth's surface
layers found in sedimentary rock
the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
the texture of metamorphic rock in which the minerals are arranged in planes or bands
the texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in plane or bands
What is a solid mixture of one or more minerals and organic matter called?
What is the process called that forms new rock from old rock?
the rock cycle
Early humans made arrowheads from which rock?
What is the process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock called?
What moves sediment from one place to another
What is it called with sediment is laid down in a body of water?
What rock forms when sediment is squeezed by the weight of the rock above it?
Besides erosion, what else causes rock to be exposed at the Earth's surface?
Grains of sediment on the ocean floor are compacted and cemented to form _________________ rock.
Intense heat and pressure change the sedimentary rock into _________________ rock.
When magma cools and solidifies, it becomes _______________ rock.
The hot liquid that forms when rock partially or completely melts is called _____________.
In the rock cycle, which factor determines which forces will change a rock?
What forces most commonly work on rocks at Earth's surface?
weather and erosion
What affects rocks deep inside the Earth?
heat and pressure
What are the 3 main classes of rock?
How do scientists classify rocks?
by composition and texture
What is meant by the composition of rock?
Besides the size and position of its grains, what else determines clastic sedimentary rock texture?
shape of the grains
What type of grains determine clastic sedimentary rock texture?
fine, medium, and coarse
Which rock's texture is determined by how fast the magma cooled?
Which rock's texture is determined by the pressure and texture the rock was exposed to?
How are igneous rocks formed?
when magma cools and solidifies
What is one way that magma can form?
when rock is heated
Besides pressure being released, what other way can magma form?
when rocks change composition
When magma cools, what does it form?
At what temperature does magma solidify?
between 700 C and 1250 C
What happens when the minerals in magma have different melting points?
some minerals will become solid before others
The more time the __________________ have to grow, the larger and coarser the texture is.
Aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium make light-colored rocks called ____________.
Dark-colored rocks called _____________ have more calcium, iron, and magnesium.
Igneous rocks differ from one another in how fast they _________________.
Igneous rocks that have small crystals have ________________ grains.
What kind of rock forms from magma that cools below the Earth's surface?
intrusive igneous rock
Intrusive igneous rock usually has what kind of texture?
What is a sheetlike intrusion that is oriented parallel to previous rock layers called?
What are large, irregular-shaped intrusive bodies called?
What are the largest igneous intrusions called?
What is it called when magma erupts on the Earth's surface?
extrusive igneous rock
Besides volcanoes, where else does lava flow from?
What landform is created when lava flows out of a fissure onto land?
a lava plateau
Wind, water, ice, and gravity cause rock to _____________________ into fragments.
Fragments of rock are called _______________.
Sediment moves from one place to another during the process of ___________________.
Sedimentary rock forms at or near the Earth's _____________.
Cement made from _____________________________ binds the fragments together.
The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is its layers, also called ___________.
Rock that forms when minerals crystallize out of a solution
chemical sedimentary rock
Rock that forms from the remains of plants and animals
organic sedimentary rock
rock or mineral fragments
Rock that forms when clasts are cemented together
clastic sedimentary rock
How are clastic sedimentary rocks classified?
What does chemical sedimentary rock form from?
minerals that crystallize out of solution
What is the chemical makeup of halite?
Limestones can be formed from ___________, or the remains of animals.
Some limestone is formed from the skeletons of tiny organisms called ___________.
Coral live in huge underwater colonies called __________.
Animal remains that are cemented together can form _____________________.
Decomposed plant material under the ground makes __________________.
What is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers?
What are the markings on sedimentary rocks that record the waves of wind and water.
Which of the following indicates the location of an ancient shoreline?
What process is a rock undergoing when the new environment is different from the one in which the rock was formed?
What aligns in parallel bands due to added pressure on a rock during metamorphism?
What occurs when a rock undergoes metamorphism by being heated by nearby magma?
The effect of contact metamorphism is greatest when the rock comes in direct contact with what?
What deforms and chemically changes rocks by means of increases in pressure and temperature?
What kind of metamorphism occurs over large areas deep in the Earth's crust?
Metamorphism occurs when temperature and ________________ inside the Earth's crust change.
During metamorphism, the original minerals change into minerals that are more ___________ in the new conditions.
The pressure of ____________________ indicates the temperature, pressure, and depth of rocks that undergo metamorphism.
the property of having mineral grains that are arranged in bands
what shale becomes under pressure
rock formed when slate is exposed to more heat and pressure
rock formed when schist is exposed to more heat and pressure
What do we call metamorphic rocks in which mineral grains are not arranged in bands?
What do we call the process in which crystals change in size or composition?
What forms when quartz sandstone is exposed to heat and pressure?
What is the term that describes the change in the shape of rock caused by squeezing or stretching?
What do folds and bends in rocks show?
They have been deformed
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