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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Spindle fibres
  2. Kinetochore
  3. Allele
  4. Gene
  5. Programmed cell death
  1. a An alternative version of a gene carrying sequence differences.
  2. b Structure formed on the centromere that attaches the chromosomes to the spindle fibres during mitosis and meiosis.
  3. c Alternative term for apoptosis.
  4. d A length of DNA that codes for one (or more) polypeptides/proteins. Some may code for RNA or regulate other genes.
  5. e Made of microtubules, these structures are responsible for providing the framework for segregation of the chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The DNA strand that is used for assembly of mRNA by RNA polymerase using base-pairing rules. Complementary to the message sequence.
  2. Groups of homeobox genes. More complex organisms have more such groups, probably due to a mutation that duplicated them.
  3. A change in DNA sequence that introduces a premature stop codon within a DNA coding sequence.
  4. Having two sets of chromosomes (eukaryotic cell or organism). Denoted by 2n.
  5. A reference to the fact that normal body cells can only divide a finite number of times, normally about 50 mitotic divisions. In contrast, tumour cells are essentially immortal.

5 True/False questions

  1. PolarityRefers to the location of cells with respect to the head end (anterior) or tail end (posterior) of the body.


  2. Segmentation genesThe way in which the 64 possible base triplets map onto the 20 amino acids that are used in polypeptide chains.


  3. MeiosisType of nuclear division. A reduction division. The chromosome number is halved. It involves two divisions. It produces cells that are genetically different from each other and from the parent cell.


  4. TranscriptionStage of protein/polypeptide synthesis in which the amino acids are assembled at ribosomes according to the genetic code.


  5. transfer RNAA short length of about 100 RNA nucleotides that adopts a clover leaf structure and carries an amino acid to the ribosome to be incorporated into a growing polypeptide chain.