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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Degenerate
  2. Neutral mutation
  3. Genotype
  4. ATP
  5. Silent mutation
  1. a A mutation that even though it may change a coding sequence exerts no harmful or beneficial effects.
  2. b A term applied to the genetic code that describes the fact that more than one triplet code is used to code for all amino acids other than tryptophan and methionine.
  3. c A change in DNA sequence within a gene that does not lead to a change in the amino acid sequence due to the degeneracy of the genetic code.
  4. d Molecule (nucleotide derivative) found in all living cells and involved in energy transfer. When it is hydrolysed energy is released.
  5. e Alleles present within cells of an individual, for a particular trait/characteristic.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Eukaryotic cell or organism that has two identical alleles for a specific gene.
  2. Genetic variation where there are distinct phenotypic categories. Usually controlled by one gene to a few genes. Examples include cystic fibrosis, shape of earlobes in humans and height in pea plants.
  3. Specific position on a chromosome, occupied by a specific gene.
  4. Characteristic coded for by one gene.
  5. The fundamental relationship between DNA, RNA and protein first outlined by Francis Crick in 1958.

5 True/False questions

  1. ProteinA stretch of DNA consisting of two or more genes that are transcribed together and coregulated.


  2. Sexual reproductionCauses an expansion or contraction of a run of identical codons within a gene affecting the length of a run of identical amino acids in the polypeptide.


  3. Proto-oncogeneGene that can undergo mutations to become an oncogene, which induces tumour formation (cancer).


  4. Crossing overWhere non-sister chromatids exchange alleles during prophase I of meiosis.


  5. RecessiveType of nuclear division. A reduction division. The chromosome number is halved. It involves two divisions. It produces cells that are genetically different from each other and from the parent cell.