Unit V Age of Jackson Vocablary
Terms in this set (25)
The first major opening up of American suffrage (voting rights) by Jackson's new Democratic Party in 1830s. Franchise extended to all white men (not just rich white men). Achieved by state legislation not constitutional amendment.
Andrew Jackson's nickname
Second Party System
The second party structure in the nation's history that emerged when Andrew Jackson first ran for the presidency in 1824. The system was built from the bottom up as political participation became a mass phenomenon.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Tariff of Abomination
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Southerners favored freedom of trade & believed in the authority of states over the fed. gov.--> declared federal protective tariffs null and void; South believed individual state cannot defy fed. gov. alone; led to increased sense among Southerners as "minority" & threat of secession rather than nullification was the South's ultimate weapon
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an "Indian Territory" where they would be "permanently" housed.
Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
The court determined that it wasn't their place to decide the outcome of the Cherokee Nation
Worcester vs Georgia
In a case similar to Cherokee Nation vs Georgia, the Supreme court ruled that Georgia didn't have the power to enforce laws within the boundaries of Cherokee territory
Trial of Tears
1838-1840, The marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory with thousands of Cherokee's dying on the way
Five "Civilized Nations"
Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminoles
Roger B. Taney
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court when Dred Scott decision was made
Second National Bank
Proposed by Madison in 1816, would issue national currency, private enterprise with 1/5 owned by government, stabilized economy, opposed by Jackson who was a strict constructionist (he was overidden by Congress); he tried to weaken the bank by creating "pet banks" and telling the states to tax the national government
The South's nickname for Jackson, because he is doing everything that he wants to do as president
Conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Charles River Bank vs Warren Bridge
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts sanctioned another company to build the Warren Bridge, chartered 1828, that would be very close in proximity to the first bridge and would connect the same two cities, the proprietors of the Charles River Bridge claimed that the Massachusetts legislature had broken its contract with the Charles River Bridge Company, and thus the contract had been violated.
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Indian Intercourse Act (1834)
These were several acts passed by the United States Congress regulating commerce between American Indians and non-Indians and restricting travel by non-Indians onto Indian land. It regulated relations between Indians living on Indian land and non-Indians, this final act identified an area known as "Indian country".
Maysville Road (veto)
Veto by Jackson that prevented the road from being funded by federal money since it only benefited Kentucky;this was a blow to Clay's American System, & it irritated the West.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.