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45 terms

Respiratory Pharmacology - Bronchodilators

Drugs (generic and trade name) and types
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Adrenergic
- Relaxes smooth muscle
Anticholinergic
- Blocks smooth muscle constriction
Metaproternol
- Alupent
- Adrenergic
- Short acting 2 - 6 hours
Salmeterol and fluticasone
- Advair
- Adrenergic
- Long acting 12 hours
Ipratropium Bromide
- Atrovent
- Anticholinergic
- short acting 4 - 6 hours
Brovana
- Arformotorol
- Adrenergic
- Long acting 12 hours
Combivent
- Albuterol and Ipratropium
- MDI
- 2 puff(s) QID
Duoneb
- Albuterol and Ipratropium Bromide
- Nebulizer
- 3mL QID and 2 extra doses a day PRN
Foradil
- Formotorol
- Adrenergic
- Long acting 12 hours
Maxair
- Pirbuterol
- Adrenergic
- Short acting 2 - 6 hours
Performist
- Formotorol
- Adrenergic
- Long acting 12 hours
Primatene Mist
- Epinephrine
- Adrenergic
- Short acting 2 - 6 hours
Proventil
- Albuterol
- Andrenergic
- Short acting 2 - 6 hours
Spiriva
- Tiotropium Bromide
- Anticholinergic
- Long acting 24 hours
Symbicort
- Formotorol and budesonide
- Adrenergic
- Long acting
- 2 puff(s), BID
Vaponefrin, S2
- Racemic epinephrine
- Adrenergic
- Short acting 2 - 6 hours
Xopenex
- Levalbuterol
- Adrenergic
- Intermediate acting 8 hours
Serevent
- Salmeterol
- Adrenergic
- Long acting 12 hours
Instructions for use of an MDI WITHOUT a spacer:
In what order should inhaled medications be taken?
1) Bronchodilator
2) Anticholinergic
3) Mucolytic
4) Corticosteroids
What would be the best way to deliver a bronchodilator to a patient who cannot cooperate?
- SVN with a mask
What type of nebulizer reduces the amount of medication wasted during exhalation?
- Breath activated nebulizer
How can thrush be avoided when using inhaled corticosteroids?
- Rinse mouth after use
Why would a HEART (high-output extended aerosol respiratory therapy) nebulizer be used?
- To deliver continuous nebulization in instances of severe bronchospasm
- Patient must be monitored closely (heart monitor, vitals, etc.) and not left alone
Bronchoconstriction refers to:
- A decrease in the diameter of the airway
Physiological effects of bronchoconstriction include:
- Constriction
- Inflammation
- Edema
Alpha receptors:
- Found primarily in blood vessels
- Stimulation = Vasoconstriction of blood vessels
Beta 1 receptors:
- Found primarily in the heart
- Stimulation = increase the heart rate
Beta 2 receptors:
- Found primarily in smooth muscle
- Stimulation = smooth muscle relaxation
What drug can be used to stop labor and as a bronchodilator?
- Magnesium sulfate
- Terbutaline
How are xanthines delivered?
- Orally
- IV
What bronchodilators are best for maintenance in asthmatic patients?
- Salmeterol
- Formotorol
- Arformotorol
What classification of drug is Levalbuterol?
- Saligenin
Which drug has less side effects than albuterol?
- Levalbuterol
What are the two anticholinergic bronchodilators?
- Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)
- Tiotropium Bromide (Spiriva)
What conditions would racemic epinephrine be used to treat?
- Croup
- Epiglottitis
Side effects of Beta-agonists include:
- Tachycardia - Nervousness
- Arrythmias - Insomnia
- Increased HR and BP - Hyperglycemia
- Hypokalemia - Dizziness, HA, N
How would it be determined that bronchodilator therapy worked?
- Peak flow
If a patient is not responsive to 2 albuterol treatments what would you do?
- Administer continuous nebulization via LVN
Side effects of theophylline include:
- Nausea
- Vomiting
- Seizures
- Tachycardia
Characteristics of asthma include:
- Reversible
- Airway narrowing
- Inflammation
What medications are best for patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD?
- Anticholinergics
IV corticosteroid =
- Methylprednisolone
Nicotine replacement medications:
- Nicotrol patch
- Nicorette gum
- Commit lozenge
- Nicotrol nasal spray
- Nicotrol inhaler
- Zyban
Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependance:
- Standard instrument for assessing the intensity of physical addiction to nicotine
- The higher the Fagerström score, the more intense is the patient's physical dependence on nicotine
- Higher scores indicate that treatment of withdrawal symptoms, usually with nicotine replacement therapy, will be an important factor in the patient's plan of care.