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33 terms

AP Biology: Plant Test One

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Taproot
One main root with many small roots branching out
Fibrous Root
There is no main root; good for water absorption. Holds onto the soil well, so it's good for controlling erosion.
Adventitious Root
A type of root that grows off of fallen trees.
Roothairs
Tiny projections that increase surface area on the root. Like villi and microvilli
Blade
The part of a leaf that is often misidentified as the leaf
Petiole
The part of the leaf that intersects the stem
Flowers
Modified leaves that facilitate reproductions
Palisade Mesophyll
The upper mesophyll, closest to the cuticle
Dermal Tissue
Tissue that makes up the outer covering of the plant
Ground Tissue
Everything other than vascular and dermal tissue
Vascular Tissue
Tissue involved in transport (xylem & phloem)
Tonoplast
Large central vacuole for photosynthesis
Leucoplast
For starch storage (also a vacuole)
Parenchyma
The photosynthetic cells with thin walls
Collenchyma
Thick walls and elongated cells for structural support
Sclerenchyma
These cells are supporting cells, when they're dead
Apical Meristems
Where plant growth occurs in the vertical direction. In the roots and the shoots (buds)
Lateral Meristem, Vascular Cambium
Allows the plant to grow wider
Zone of Cell Division
The lowest part of the root near the apical meristem that allows for cell divison
Zone of Elongation
The longest part of the root where the cells begin to grow, elongate, and specialize.
Zone of Differentiation (Maturation)
The part of the root where the cells are fully specialized
Cork Cambium
It produces the epidermis for the tree, which is known as bark.
Apoplast Pathway
Pathway in which water travels between cells.
Symplast Pathway
Pathway in which water travels through cells.
Casparian Strip
A line of cells that only allow water to pass through them, not between them. Allows for the cells to control water loss and water gain.
Tracheids
Cells found in the xylem that all plants have
Vessel Elements
Cells found in the xylem that some plants have.
Turgid
When a cell is full of water.
Flaccid
When a cell is void water.
Abscisic Acid
A substance that acts on guard cells that force them to close.
Sieve Tube Elements
Phloem cells without nucleus or tonoplast (central vacuole) that are used for food transport.
Companion Cells
Phloem cells that support the sieve tube elements by providing proteins for function, and serve as sources for food that needs to be transported.
Translocation
Food transport in the phloem is called this.