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One main root with many small roots branching out

Fibrous Root

There is no main root; good for water absorption. Holds onto the soil well, so it's good for controlling erosion.

Adventitious Root

A type of root that grows off of fallen trees.


Tiny projections that increase surface area on the root. Like villi and microvilli


The part of a leaf that is often misidentified as the leaf


The part of the leaf that intersects the stem


Modified leaves that facilitate reproductions

Palisade Mesophyll

The upper mesophyll, closest to the cuticle

Dermal Tissue

Tissue that makes up the outer covering of the plant

Ground Tissue

Everything other than vascular and dermal tissue

Vascular Tissue

Tissue involved in transport (xylem & phloem)


Large central vacuole for photosynthesis


For starch storage (also a vacuole)


The photosynthetic cells with thin walls


Thick walls and elongated cells for structural support


These cells are supporting cells, when they're dead

Apical Meristems

Where plant growth occurs in the vertical direction. In the roots and the shoots (buds)

Lateral Meristem, Vascular Cambium

Allows the plant to grow wider

Zone of Cell Division

The lowest part of the root near the apical meristem that allows for cell divison

Zone of Elongation

The longest part of the root where the cells begin to grow, elongate, and specialize.

Zone of Differentiation (Maturation)

The part of the root where the cells are fully specialized

Cork Cambium

It produces the epidermis for the tree, which is known as bark.

Apoplast Pathway

Pathway in which water travels between cells.

Symplast Pathway

Pathway in which water travels through cells.

Casparian Strip

A line of cells that only allow water to pass through them, not between them. Allows for the cells to control water loss and water gain.


Cells found in the xylem that all plants have

Vessel Elements

Cells found in the xylem that some plants have.


When a cell is full of water.


When a cell is void water.

Abscisic Acid

A substance that acts on guard cells that force them to close.

Sieve Tube Elements

Phloem cells without nucleus or tonoplast (central vacuole) that are used for food transport.

Companion Cells

Phloem cells that support the sieve tube elements by providing proteins for function, and serve as sources for food that needs to be transported.


Food transport in the phloem is called this.

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