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Global Politics - Key Glossary Terms
Terms in this set (34)
Exercise of restraint in the acquisition, deployment and use of weapons. Underlying assumption of arms control is that weapons are a continuing and persistent feature of the interaction between states. Seeks to regulate the use of arms and, therefore, the actions of states.
The state of being a citizen of a particular social, political or national community. A citizen enjoys the privileges and rights accorded by the state, as well as the obligations such as jury service. Moves towards transnational political communities has raised the possibility of global citizenship, where individual loyalties to the state are transformed to a global society on the basis of universal moral principles.
Negotiations between actors in the global political arena in response to crisis, most commonly concerning conflicts and natural disasters, but also economic and health crises.
Processes associated with the spread of democracy around the world.
Often measured in terms of increases in gross national product (GNP) between states. A state is 'developing' if its GNP is increasing. Is in itself a controversial term seemingly prioritising the acquisition of wealth over political liberties, human rights and the environment, and as a result, preference is now placed on 'sustainable development'. Traditionally does not take into account disparities of wealth that can occur as a result of development.
Entire process in which states conduct their foreign relations with one another. Means for states to cooperate and by which they resolve conflicts without force. An instrument of foreign policy most recognisable through the establishment of embassies and the work of ambassadors, ministers and envoys. Vehicle through which a state asserts itself and means by which it seeks to achieve its national interests. Occurs on bilateral and multilateral levels.
Political, social and philosophical ideology that seeks to prevent human-induced environmental degradation whilst seeking to improve the state of the environment, often through conservation. Major influence in global politics.
Seeks to address questions of morality. This extends to global politics on the basis that a common humanity binds all human beings beyond individuals in states to the world as a whole, thus necessitating certain actions.
Acceleration and intensification of exchanges of goods, services, labour and capital which promote global interdependence. These have been facilitated by rapid changes in communication and technology. Has widespread impacts on social, political, economic and cultural life.
Institutions, rules, norms and legal arrangements that seek to facilitate cooperation, and manage relations, between states. Governance is carried out by both governmental organisations such as the United Nations and nongovernmental organisations such as the International Criminal Court.
Power exercised through coercion, or threatened acts of coercion, to influence the actions of other global actors. Most commonly exercised via military forms.
Rights that are afforded to all human beings universally on the basis of their common humanity. Rights are restricted as much by what is necessary to secure comparable rights of others as the right of any particular individual. The concept of human rights has evolved over time to include three categories: civil and political rights (right to life and political participation), economic, social and cultural rights (right to subsistence) and solidarity rights (right to peace, right to clean environment)
School of thought in which foreign policy is influenced above all else by moral principle, as opposed to practical and pragmatic considerations.
When global actors work together to achieve common ideals and goals.
An entity that makes decisions and takes action for the benefit of all countries and peoples on the basis of common duties and obligations between states, their citizens and other global actors. Most commonly used in the context of taking action against repressive regimes or upholding human rights. The extent to which a functioning and effective international community exists is contentious.
Notion of a 'society of states' in which law, order and cooperation are the basis of interaction, and that states work towards achieving common ideals and goals. The extent to which a functioning and an effective international society exists is contentious.
Concept of moral rightness based on ethics, law, fairness and equity that, importantly, also seeks punishment when said ethics are breached. Extends to global politics through international systems of justice, such as the International Criminal Court and International Court of Justice, which seek to uphold international law and deter future violations.
System of coordinating relations between three or more states, usually in pursuit of objectives in particular areas.
Groups of people claiming common bonds based on culture, language and history. Some nations have their own state, such as the Japanese, whilst others want their own state such as the Tibetans and Kurds.
Political social grouping in which people within territorial boundaries, with recognised sovereignty, have common bonds based on culture, language and history.
Used as an all-embracing concept to justify policy preferences and actions, and includes the goals or objectives of foreign policy.
Specialised organisations, agencies and groups committed to promoting particular interests or issues. These organisations work on the basis of links between individuals across the globe and are independent from government influence, and as such act as a moderating influence on government behaviour.
The ability of one global actor to influence the actions of another global actor. Power can be exercised in a range of types and forms.
School of thought in which foreign policy is influenced above all else by practical and pragmatic considerations, as opposed to moral principles.
Form of communication aimed at influencing the attitude and perspective of the international community toward some cause or position by presenting a one-sided perspective. Can be used as an instrument of power to influence the actions of other actors.
The ability to shape the actions of other global actors most commonly exercised through diplomacy, culture, policies and history. A term first coined by Joseph Nye.
Legitimate or widely recognised ability to exercise effective control of a territory within recognised borders. Primary organising principle of global politics which provides states with the authority to represent their territorial entity within the international community. State sovereignty can be challenged internally (for example, secessionist groups) or externally (for example, one state invades another).
Traditionally the central actor in international relations, states possess a permanent population, defined territory and recognised sovereignty. States are not necessarily culturally homogenous, for example Australia.
Most commonly used in relation to development policies, sustainability seeks to organise states and their economies so that current needs are met whilst not jeopardising meeting these needs in the future. Advocates for maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity as well as the sustainable use of resources.
The threatened or actual use of violence to achieve political objectives. Can be utilised by individuals, groups and governments.
Issues which affect a number of states at any one time and so require joint action to be resolved, for example global warming, migration and terrorism.
Company whose operations and investments extend beyond the boundaries of the state in which it is registered. Also referred to as multinational corporations.
Policy of acting alone, with little regard for the views or interests of other global actors, in pursuit of foreign policy objectives.
Utility of violence
Violence employed as a means of achieving one's political objectives, commonly witnessed in global politics through interstate war. Violence is purposeful and organised. Traditionally perceived as an instrument of state power, violence and threatened acts of violence are increasingly utilised by terrorist groups as a means of achieving their objectives.