formed from broken up pieces of rock called sediment that have been compacted over thousands of years; has layers; can contain fossils
formed from lava or magma that has cooled and hardened; usually dark colored; contains holes called pores
formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are changed by heat or pressure; has crystals and streaks of light and dark
make up minerals
how shiny or dull a mineral is; the way a mineral's surface reflects light
how easily a mineral can be scratched
the color of a mineral's powder
the color of mineral
the way a mineral feels
the way a mineral breaks apart
the breaking down of rock on Earth's surface into smaller pieces
broken up pieces of rock
the process of moving sediment from one place to another
a mixture of weathered rock, decayed plant and animal matter, water, and air
decayed plant and animal matter
has the largest particles; does not hold water well
has medium sized particles
has the smallest particles; holds water and nutrients well; often used for making pottery because of its texture
a mixture of sand, clay, and silt; ideal for gardening because it contains nutrients and moisture
top layer of soil containing a mixture of humus and minerals
second layer of soil containing partly weathered
the bottom layer of soil containing solid rock
different layers of soil
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