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Olive -- Rocks, Minerals, and Soil

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sedimentary rock
formed from broken up pieces of rock called sediment that have been compacted over thousands of years; has layers; can contain fossils
igneous rock
formed from lava or magma that has cooled and hardened; usually dark colored; contains holes called pores
metamorphic
formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are changed by heat or pressure; has crystals and streaks of light and dark
minerals
make up rocks
crystals
make up minerals
luster
how shiny or dull a mineral is; the way a mineral's surface reflects light
hardness
how easily a mineral can be scratched
streak
the color of a mineral's powder
color
the color of mineral
texture
the way a mineral feels
cleavage
the way a mineral breaks apart
weathering
the breaking down of rock on Earth's surface into smaller pieces
sediment
broken up pieces of rock
erosion
the process of moving sediment from one place to another
soil
a mixture of weathered rock, decayed plant and animal matter, water, and air
humus
decayed plant and animal matter
sand
has the largest particles; does not hold water well
silt
has medium sized particles
clay
has the smallest particles; holds water and nutrients well; often used for making pottery because of its texture
loam
a mixture of sand, clay, and silt; ideal for gardening because it contains nutrients and moisture
topsoil
top layer of soil containing a mixture of humus and minerals
subsoil
second layer of soil containing partly weathered
bedrock
the bottom layer of soil containing solid rock
horizons
different layers of soil