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Med Term Ch. 10

nervous system
STUDY
PLAY
arthr/o
articulation
cerebell/o
cerebellum (little brain)
crain/o
skull
encephal/o
entire brain
esthesi/o
sensation
gangli/o
ganglion (knot)
gli/o
glue
articulation
arthr/o
cerebrum (largest part of brain)
cerebr/o
skull
crain/o
entire brain
encephal/o
sensation
esthesi/o
ganglion (knot)
gangli/o
glue
gli/o
knowing
gnos/o
gnos/o
knowing
sleep
hypn/o
somn/i
somn/o
hypn/o
somn/i
somn/o
sleep
movement
kinesi/o
kinesi/o
movement
word or phrase
lex/o
lex/o
word or phrase
mening/o
meningi/o
meninges (membrane)
meninges (membrane)
mening/o
meningi/o
spinal cord or bone marrow
myel/o
myel/o
spinal cord or bone marrow
narc/o
stupor, sleep
stupor, sleep
narc/o
neur/o
nerve
nerve
neur/o
phas/o
speech
speech
phas/o
exaggerated fear or sensitivity
phob/o
phob/o
exaggerated fear or sensitivity
phor/o
carry or bear
carry or bear
phor/o
mind
phren/o
psych/o
thym/o
phren/o
psych/o
thym/o
mind
split
schiz/o
schiz/o
split
somat/o
body
body
somat/o
spin/o
spine (thorn)
spine (thorn)
spin/o
vertebra
spondyl/o
vertebr/o
spondyl/o
vertebr/o
vertebra
stere/o
three dimensional or solid
three dimensional or solid
stere/o
tax/o
order or coordination
order or coordination
tax/o
thalamus (a room)
thalam/o
thalam/o
thalamus (a room)
tone or tension
ton/o
ton/o
tone or tension
top/o
place
place
top/o
ventricul/o
ventricle (belly or pouch)
ventricle (belly or pouch)
ventricul/o
cata-
down
down
cata-
-asthenia
weakness
weakness
-asthenia
-lepsy
seizure
seizure
-lepsy
-mania
condition of abnormaly impulse toward
-mania
condition of abnormal impulse toward
-paresis
slight paralysis
slight paralysis
-paresis
-plegia
paralysis
paralysis
-plegia
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
CNS
CNS
central nervous system
brain
portion of the central nervous system contained within the crainum
cerebrum
largest portion of the brain; it is divided into right and left halves known as cerebral hemispheres that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe
protion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responaible for higher mental functions
thalamus (diencephalon)
two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
gyri
ring or circle; convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
sulci
ditch; shallow grooves in the brain
cerebellum
portions of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles.
brainstem
region of the brain that serves as a relay between teh cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; there are three levels; mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
ventricles
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid
CSF
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
meninges
three membranes that cover the crain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (crainal nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
peripheral nervous system
PNS
PNS
peripheral nervous system
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves
afferent nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain
motor nerves
efferent nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smoth muscle, cardiac muscle and various glands
autonomic nervous system
ANS
ANS
autonomic nervous system
hypothalamus
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience.
aphasia
condition without speech; important due to loaclized brain injury that affects understanding retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language
dysarthria
condition of difficult articulation; group of related speech impariments that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength, and timing of motor movements as a result of paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles
dysphasia
difficulty speaking
coma
general tem referring to levels of decreased consciousness with verying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scale.
delirium
state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function - there are many causes, including fever, shock, or drug overdose.
dementia
impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
motor deficit
loss or impairment of muscle function
sensory deficit
loss or impairment of sensation
hyperesthesia
increases sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
paresthesia
abnormal sensation of numbness and thingling without objective cause
agnosia
any of many types of loss of nuerological function associated with interpretation of sensory information
astereognosis
inability to judege the form of an object by touch
atopognosis
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body
alzheimer's disease
disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible seterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
a condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in tal loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms, legs, muscles of speec, swalloing, and breathing to total paralysis and death - also known as Lou Gehrig disease.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ALS
ALS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination.
cerebral palsy
CP
CP
cerebral palsy
cerebrovascular disease
disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
cerebral arteriosclerosis
herdening of the arteries of the brain
cerebral atherosclerosis
condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
cerebral aneurysm
dilation of blood vessel in the brain
cerebral thrombosis
presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
verebral embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke
damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular diseaseq
cerebrocascular accident
CBA
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit (impairment) - often precedes a CVA
transient ischemic attack
TIA
TIA
transient ischemic attact
carotid transient ischemic attack
ischemic of the anterior circulation of the brain
vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attack
ischemia of the posterior circulation of the brain
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
epilepsy
disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures
tonic-clonic
stiffness-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups - perviously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
absence
seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness with out motor involvement - previously termed petite mal (little bad) seizure
partial
seizure involing only limited ares of the brain with localized symptoms
glioma
tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy
herniated disk
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk, causing compression on the nerve root
herpes zoster
viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spead over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilaterally - also known as shingles
huntington disease (HD)
hereditary disease of the central nervous system
huntington disease
HD
HD
huntington disease
huntington chorea
characterized by bizarre involuntary body movement and progressive dementia
hydrocephalus
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental abnormalies, infection, injury, or tumor
meningioma
benign tumor of the covering of the brain
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
migrane headache
paroxysmal attacks of mostly unilateral headache often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, and/or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
multiple sclerosis (MS)
disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurological dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
multiple sclerosis
MS
MS
multiple sclerosis
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength with activity and a return of strength after a period of rest.
myelitis
inflammation of the spinal cord
narcolepsy
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
parkinson disease
condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter that is necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor, regidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia), usually occuring later in life
plegia
paralysis
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body
paraplegia
paralysis from the waist down
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
poliomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
polyneuritis
inflammartion involving two or more nerves, often owing to a nutritional deficiency such as lack of thiamine
reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RDS)
condition of abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system in response to pain perception, usually as the result of an injury to an extremity; symptoms include persistent burning pain, tissue edema, joint tenderness, changes in skin color and temperature, and abnormal sweating at the pain site - decreased mobility caused by pain can lead to muscle atrophy and loss of motor function
reflex sympathetic dystrophy
RSD
RSD
reflex sympathetic dystrophy
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
spina bifida
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
electroencephalogram (EEG)
record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain used to identify neurological condition that affect brain function and level of consciousness
evoked potentials
record of minute electrical potentials (waves) that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders - also used to monitor the neurological funtion of parients during surgery.
nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
electrical shock of peripheral nerves to record time of conduction; used to diagnose carious peripheral nervous system diseases
nerve conduction velocity
NCV
NCV
nerve conduction velocity
polysomnography (PSG)
recording of various aspects of sleep (ex: eyes and muscle movement, respiration, eeg patterns) to diagnose sleep disorders
polysomnography
PSG
PSG
polysomnography
lumbar puncture (LP)
introduction of a specialized needle into the spine into the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing; also called spinal tap
lumbar puncture
LP
LP
lumbar puncture
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
use of magnetic resonance in imaging of the blood vessels - useful in detecting pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis
magnetic resonance imaging
MRI
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
use of magnetic resonace in imaging of the blood vessels - useful in detecting pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis
magnetic resonance angiography
MRA
MRA
magnetic resonance angiography
intracranial magnetic resonance angiography
magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
extracranial magnetic resonance angiography
magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
SPECT brain scan (single photon emission computed tomography)
scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of the brain after administration of radioactive isotopes.
positron emission tomography (PET)
technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology - used to study stroke, alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, meabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in the brain, etc.; it provides grater accuracy than SPECT but it is used less often becuase of cost and limited abailability of the radioisotopes
positron emission tomography
PET
PET
positron emission tomography
radiography
x-ray imaging
cerebral angiogram
x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
computed tomography (of the head)
computed tomographic x-ray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities within
myelogram
x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contract medium
reflex testing
test performed to observe the body's response to a stimulus
deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon indicating function; positive finding are noted when there is either no reflex response or an exaggerated response to stimulus; numbers are often used to record responses.
deep tendon reflexes
DTR
DTR
deep tendon reflexes
babinski sign or reflex
pathological response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign is indicated with the toes dorsiflex (curl upward)
transcranial sonogram
image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels - used in diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
crainectomy
excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
craniotomy
incision into the skull to approach the brain
diskectomy (discectomy)
removal of a herniated disk often done percutaneously
laminectomy
excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord
vertebral lamina
flattened posterior portion of the vertebral arch
microsurgery
utilization of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
neuroendovascular surgery
diagnosis and treatment of disorders within cerebral blood vessels performed in a specialized angiographic laboratory by interventional neuroradiologists
neuroplasty
surgical repair of a nerve
spondylosyndesis
spinal fusion
chemotherapy
treatment of malignancies, infections, and other disease with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce.
radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede proliferation of malignant cells
stereotactic (sterotaxic) radiosurgery
radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesions involving the foucs of multiple, precise external radiation beams on a target with the aid of a sterotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography; used to treat inoperable brain tumors and other lesions
sterotactic (sterotaxic) frame
mechanical device used to localize a point in space targeting a precise site
thrombolytic therapy
dissolution of thrombi using drugs used to treat acute ischemic stroke
analgesic
agent that relieves pain
anticoagulant
drug that prevents clotting of the blood; commonly used to prevent heart attack and ischemic stroke
anticonvulsant
agent that prevents or lessens convulsion
hypnotic
agent that induces sleep
sedative
agent that has a calming effect
affect
emotional feeling or mood
flat affect
significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
apathy
lack of interest or display of emotion
catatonia
state of unresponsivenss to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
delusion
persistent belief that has no basis in reality
grandiose delusion
person's false belief that he or she prossesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
persecutory
person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with intent to harm
dysphoria
restless, dissatisfied mood
euphoria
exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
hallucination
false perception of the senses for whcih there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things
ideation
formation of thoughts or ideas
mania
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
neurosis
psychological condition in which anxiety is prominent
psychosis
mental condition characterized by distortion of reality, resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's own environment
throught disorder
thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
major depression
major depressive illness
clinical depression
major affective disorder
unipolar disorder
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
dysthymia
milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression persisting for at least 2 years
manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
bipolar disorder
BD
BD
bipolar disorder
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring
seasonal affective disorder
SAD
SAD
seasonal affective disorder
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, and uncontrollable worry about everyday problems that affects the ability to relax or concentrate but does not ususally interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia - symptoms must exist for at least 6 months before a diagnosis can be made.
generalized anxiety disorder
GAD
GAD
generalized anxiety disorder
panic disorder (PD)
disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings including physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack such as rapid heart rate, chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, sweating, and dizziness, with a general sense of loss of control or feeling that death is imminent; often progressess to agoraphobia
panic disorder
PD
PD
panic disorder
phobia
exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic; named for the object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia (marketplace), claustrophobia (confinement), or acrophobia (high places).
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
condition resulting from an extreamely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; may occur after a war, violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident, natural disaster, etc.; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections.
posttraumatic stress disorder
PTSD
PTSD
posttraumatic stress disorder
obsessive-complusive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions, which can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life.
obsessive-compulsive disorder
OCD
OCD
obsessive-compulsive disorder
hypochondirasis
preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
autism
developmental disability commonly appearing during the first 3 years of life, resulting from a neurological disorder affecting brain function, evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and an inability to related to anything beyond oneself in social interactions; individuals with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking, repetitive hand movements, and commonly become preoccupied with observing parts of small objects or moving parts or performing meaningless rituals.
dyslexia
developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading spelling, and self-expression.
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with the ability to function normally at school, home, or work; specific criteria must be met before a diagnosis is made
mental retardation
condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities
anorexia nervosa
severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
bulimia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit disestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins causing personal and social dysfunctionl; identified by the abuse substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, or polysubstance abuse.
schizophrenia
disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment characterized by a broad range of "positive" and "negative" symptoms
positive symptoms
pertaining to schizophrenia: distortions of normal functions (behaviors that are absent in normal people, ex: disorganized thoughs, delusions, hallucinations, catatonic behavior.)
negative symptoms
pertaining to schizophrenia: normal reactions missing in person with schizophrenia (including flat affect, apathy, and withdrawl from reality.
disorganized
type of schizophrenia that features disorganized speech, behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect
catatonic
type of schizophrenia that features catatonia
paranoid
type of schizophrenia that features delusions, most often persecutory or grandiose types
schizoaffective disorder
type of schizophrenia that is concurrent with major depression or manic depression
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions; used to treat severly sepressed patients
electroconvulsive therapy
ECT
ECT
electroconvulsive theapy
light therapy
use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorder
psychotherapy
treatment of psychiatric disorders used verbal and nonverbal interaction with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques
behavioral therapy
treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior
cognitive therapy
treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illnesses
antianxiety agents
anxiolytic agents
drugs used to reduce anxiety
antidepressant
agent that counteracts depression
neuroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia.
cerebr/o
cerebrum (largest part of brain)
cerebellum (little brain)
cerebell/o