largest portion of the brain; it is divided into right and left halves known as cerebral hemispheres that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responaible for higher mental functions
two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
portions of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles.
region of the brain that serves as a relay between teh cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; there are three levels; mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
three membranes that cover the crain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (crainal nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smoth muscle, cardiac muscle and various glands
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience.
condition without speech; important due to loaclized brain injury that affects understanding retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language
condition of difficult articulation; group of related speech impariments that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength, and timing of motor movements as a result of paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles
general tem referring to levels of decreased consciousness with verying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scale.
state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function - there are many causes, including fever, shock, or drug overdose.
impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
any of many types of loss of nuerological function associated with interpretation of sensory information
disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible seterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
a condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in tal loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms, legs, muscles of speec, swalloing, and breathing to total paralysis and death - also known as Lou Gehrig disease.
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination.
disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit (impairment) - often precedes a CVA
stiffness-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups - perviously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness with out motor involvement - previously termed petite mal (little bad) seizure
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk, causing compression on the nerve root
viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spead over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilaterally - also known as shingles
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental abnormalies, infection, injury, or tumor
paroxysmal attacks of mostly unilateral headache often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, and/or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
multiple sclerosis (MS)
disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurological dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength with activity and a return of strength after a period of rest.
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter that is necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor, regidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia), usually occuring later in life
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
inflammartion involving two or more nerves, often owing to a nutritional deficiency such as lack of thiamine
reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RDS)
condition of abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system in response to pain perception, usually as the result of an injury to an extremity; symptoms include persistent burning pain, tissue edema, joint tenderness, changes in skin color and temperature, and abnormal sweating at the pain site - decreased mobility caused by pain can lead to muscle atrophy and loss of motor function
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain used to identify neurological condition that affect brain function and level of consciousness
record of minute electrical potentials (waves) that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders - also used to monitor the neurological funtion of parients during surgery.
nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
electrical shock of peripheral nerves to record time of conduction; used to diagnose carious peripheral nervous system diseases
recording of various aspects of sleep (ex: eyes and muscle movement, respiration, eeg patterns) to diagnose sleep disorders
lumbar puncture (LP)
introduction of a specialized needle into the spine into the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing; also called spinal tap
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
use of magnetic resonance in imaging of the blood vessels - useful in detecting pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
use of magnetic resonace in imaging of the blood vessels - useful in detecting pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis
intracranial magnetic resonance angiography
magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
extracranial magnetic resonance angiography
magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
SPECT brain scan (single photon emission computed tomography)
scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of the brain after administration of radioactive isotopes.
positron emission tomography (PET)
technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology - used to study stroke, alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, meabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in the brain, etc.; it provides grater accuracy than SPECT but it is used less often becuase of cost and limited abailability of the radioisotopes
x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
computed tomography (of the head)
computed tomographic x-ray images of the head used to visualize abnormalities within
deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon indicating function; positive finding are noted when there is either no reflex response or an exaggerated response to stimulus; numbers are often used to record responses.
babinski sign or reflex
pathological response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign is indicated with the toes dorsiflex (curl upward)
image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels - used in diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
diagnosis and treatment of disorders within cerebral blood vessels performed in a specialized angiographic laboratory by interventional neuroradiologists
treatment of malignancies, infections, and other disease with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce.
treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede proliferation of malignant cells
stereotactic (sterotaxic) radiosurgery
radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesions involving the foucs of multiple, precise external radiation beams on a target with the aid of a sterotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography; used to treat inoperable brain tumors and other lesions
sterotactic (sterotaxic) frame
mechanical device used to localize a point in space targeting a precise site
drug that prevents clotting of the blood; commonly used to prevent heart attack and ischemic stroke
state of unresponsivenss to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
person's false belief that he or she prossesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
false perception of the senses for whcih there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things
mental condition characterized by distortion of reality, resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's own environment
major depressive illness
major affective disorder
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression persisting for at least 2 years
manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, and uncontrollable worry about everyday problems that affects the ability to relax or concentrate but does not ususally interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia - symptoms must exist for at least 6 months before a diagnosis can be made.
panic disorder (PD)
disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings including physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack such as rapid heart rate, chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, sweating, and dizziness, with a general sense of loss of control or feeling that death is imminent; often progressess to agoraphobia
exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic; named for the object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia (marketplace), claustrophobia (confinement), or acrophobia (high places).
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
condition resulting from an extreamely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; may occur after a war, violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident, natural disaster, etc.; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections.
obsessive-complusive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions, which can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life.
preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
developmental disability commonly appearing during the first 3 years of life, resulting from a neurological disorder affecting brain function, evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and an inability to related to anything beyond oneself in social interactions; individuals with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking, repetitive hand movements, and commonly become preoccupied with observing parts of small objects or moving parts or performing meaningless rituals.
developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading spelling, and self-expression.
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with the ability to function normally at school, home, or work; specific criteria must be met before a diagnosis is made
condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities
severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit disestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins causing personal and social dysfunctionl; identified by the abuse substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, or polysubstance abuse.
disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment characterized by a broad range of "positive" and "negative" symptoms
pertaining to schizophrenia: distortions of normal functions (behaviors that are absent in normal people, ex: disorganized thoughs, delusions, hallucinations, catatonic behavior.)
pertaining to schizophrenia: normal reactions missing in person with schizophrenia (including flat affect, apathy, and withdrawl from reality.
type of schizophrenia that features disorganized speech, behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect
type of schizophrenia that is concurrent with major depression or manic depression
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions; used to treat severly sepressed patients
use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorder
treatment of psychiatric disorders used verbal and nonverbal interaction with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques