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Embalming Pathology Unit 6

Diseases of the Digestive System
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Gingivitis
Inflammation of the gums
Pharyngitis
Inflammation of the pharynx
Esophagitis
Inflammation of the esophagus
Stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth
Glossitis
Inflammation of the tongue
Laryngitis
Inflammation of the larynx
Gastritis
Inflammation of the stomach, caused by any substance that irritates it (coffee, spicy foods, smoking, alcohol).
Peptic Ulcer
Ulcer usually of the lower end of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Due to overproduction of pepsin and gastric acid on mucosa of digestive organs. Gnawing feeling.
Gastric Ulcer
Ulcer of the gastric mucosa created by gastric juices. Most ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori.
Colitis
Inflammation of the colon (large intestine), caused by stress. Long term may lead to colon cancer.
Enteritis
Inflammation of the small intestines
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix; may lead to peritonitis if rupture occurs
Symptoms of Appendicitis
More common among males, 15-25. Severe pain RLQ.
Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum (membrane coat lining the abdominal cavity and investing the viscera). Caused by entry of infectious organisms, improper surgical procedures, or rupture of appendix.
Hemorrhoids "Piles"
Varicose veins in the rectal area
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver
Hepatitis A
Infectious Hepatitis, less serious. Acquired by eating contaminated food or water. Poor sanitation. Responds well to treatment.
Hepatitis B
Serum Hepatitis, chronic and may be fatal. Acquired by being exposed to contaminated blood. Muscle and joint pain, fatigue, clay colored stools.
Cirrhosis
Disease of the liver, hob-nailed appearance. Caused by alcohol abuse, drugs, virus. Results in blockage of veins which drain into liver, back up occurs.
Cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder; caused by blockages of bile duct. Sore and swollen, N and V. Fever, gradual pain or sudden extreme pain in upper abdomen.
Cholelithiasis
Gallstones; not unusual to form them but can be a problem if the bile duct becomes blocked.
Cholangitis
Inflammation of the bile duct
Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas; severe abdominal pain, chemical suicide.
Diverticulosis
Food particles become impacted in the diverticula, infection leads to diverticulitis
Pyrloric Stenosis
Hypertrophy of the sphincter muscle of the pylorus
Anomalies
Irregularity
Hernia
Protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally holds it
Hiatal Hernia
Stomach protrudes through the diaphragm
Inguinal Hernia
80% of all hernias; protrusion of the hernial sac containing the intestine at the inguinal opening
Carcinoma of the Stomach
Coffee ground purge, poor prognosis, dyspepsia; pain, tenderness, weight loss, vomiting of partially digestedd food
Polyps
Colonic, polyps of the colon, usually benign. May become malignant.
Colon Rectal Cancer
Malignant neoplastic disease of the large intestine. Characterized by change in bowel habits and melena. Tumors begin to appear after age 50. More common in women.
Paralysis
Decrease in peristalsis, preventing movement of intestinal contents
Volvulus
Bowel twists upon itself causing obstruction. Prolapsed mesentery is predisposing cause.
Intussusception
One segment of intestine is pushed into another segment, seen chiefly in children
Infectious Obstruction
Pus from infection can prevent peristalsis, can cause spasms that will not relax.
Abdominal Adhesions
Adhesions of the abdominal cavity, usually involves intestines. Caused by inflammation or trauma.
Proctitis
Inflammation of the rectum and anus. May be acute or chronic with rectal discomfort and repeated urge to poop and inability to pass feces.
Ileitis
Inflammation of the ileum; lumen may narrow and adhesions form. Pain, distension, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting.
Crohn's Disease
Chronic inflammation of the ileum and colon
Cystitis
Inflammation of the bladder, usually secondary to UTI
Anorexia
Females 12-21, loss of appetite
Bulimia
Excessive appetite, self induced vomiting.
Dysentery
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the colon. Danger of dehydration
Diarrhea
Frequent passage of watery unformed stool. Danger of dehydration.
Constipation
Excessive absorption of water from large intestine causing hard, dry stools. Difficult to pass.
Dysphasia
Difficult swallowing
Dyspepsia
Difficulting digesting
Reflux
Backflow of stomach contents