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42 terms

NUR1450 Respiratory

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Type I alveoli
Responsible for gas exchange
Type II alveoli
Produce surfactant which prevents alveoli collapse
Alveolar macrophages
Remove foreign matter from respiratory system
Ventilation
Movement of gases in and out of lungs
Perfusion
Flow of blood through vessels of specific organ
Diffusion
Movement of gases across alveolar capillary membrane from high to low concentration
Parietal pleura
Lies adjacent to chest wall and produces pleural fluid
Visceral pleura
Adheres to surface of lung and absorbs pleural fluid
External respiration
Exchange of gases between inhaled air in alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries
Internal respiration
Exchange of gases at cellular level between tissue cells and blood in systemic capillaries
Bronchial
Breath sounds heard over sternum/expiration>inspiration
Bronchovesicular
Breath sounds heard over anterior 1/3 of chest near sternum/inspiration=expiration
Vesicular
Breath sounds heard over majority of lungs/heard on inspiration, inaudible on expiration
Adventitious sounds
Abnormal breath sounds such as crackles, wheezes, or stridor
Kussmaul's
Irregular periods of increase rate and depth of respirations
Biot's
Irregular periods of apnea alternating with short periods of respirations of equal depth
Cheyne-Stokes
Initially slow, shallow respirations that increase in rapidity and depth, then gradually decrease respirations the stops for 10-60 seconds
O2 saturation
Amount of O2 combined with Hgb
Hypocapnia
Decrease in arterial CO2
Bronchoscopy
Scope used to examine bronchi, remove particles, tissue sputum samples
Thorocentesis
Procedure to remove fluid or air from pleural space
Underwater seal
Prevents negative pressure within pleural space from pulling air in/tidaling of water
Drainage chamber
Used for collection of air or fluid by gravity or suction
Suction control chamber
Provides suction controlled to provide negative pressure/gently bubbling
Pleurisy
Painful inflammation of pleura
Pleural effusion
Fluid accumulation which compresses lung tissue
Empyema
Effusions become infectious
Atelectasis
Most common airway obstruction which bronchiole blocked with secretions/alveoli distal collapse
Pulmonary embolism
Blood clot to lungs which occludes pulmonary blood vessel
Greenfield filter
Used to prevent clots from traveling from lower extremities to heart, lungs, and brain
Pulmonary edema
Rapid fluid shift from plasma to interstitial and alveoli causing impaired gas exchange
ARDS
Hypoxemia as a result of major assault on multiple body systems or severe trauma
Asthma
Intermittent airway obstruction in response to stimuli
Chronic bronchitis
Inflammed bronchial tree with excessive mucus leading to chest wall distention, and increased infections
Emphysema
Condition where airways become fibrotic, lose elasticity, and result in narrow lumen leading to barrel chest, hypercapnia, and hypoxia
Bronchiectasis
Chronically dilated bronchi caused by pulmonary TB, chronic URI, or childhood infections due to cystic fibrosis
Pneumothorax
Integrity of pleura interrupted where air or gas accumulates in pleural space
Closed pneumothorax
No communication between external environment and pleural space such as with broken rib
Open pneumothorax
Direct communication between external environment and pleural space such as with gun shot or knife
Tension pneumothorax
Air enters pleural space on inspriation but unable to exit on expiration caused by mechanical ventilation or central lines
Hemothorax
Serosanginous fluid in pleural space
Epistaxis
Hemorrhage of nares or nostrils