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Type I alveoli

Responsible for gas exchange

Type II alveoli

Produce surfactant which prevents alveoli collapse

Alveolar macrophages

Remove foreign matter from respiratory system


Movement of gases in and out of lungs


Flow of blood through vessels of specific organ


Movement of gases across alveolar capillary membrane from high to low concentration

Parietal pleura

Lies adjacent to chest wall and produces pleural fluid

Visceral pleura

Adheres to surface of lung and absorbs pleural fluid

External respiration

Exchange of gases between inhaled air in alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries

Internal respiration

Exchange of gases at cellular level between tissue cells and blood in systemic capillaries


Breath sounds heard over sternum/expiration>inspiration


Breath sounds heard over anterior 1/3 of chest near sternum/inspiration=expiration


Breath sounds heard over majority of lungs/heard on inspiration, inaudible on expiration

Adventitious sounds

Abnormal breath sounds such as crackles, wheezes, or stridor


Irregular periods of increase rate and depth of respirations


Irregular periods of apnea alternating with short periods of respirations of equal depth


Initially slow, shallow respirations that increase in rapidity and depth, then gradually decrease respirations the stops for 10-60 seconds

O2 saturation

Amount of O2 combined with Hgb


Decrease in arterial CO2


Scope used to examine bronchi, remove particles, tissue sputum samples


Procedure to remove fluid or air from pleural space

Underwater seal

Prevents negative pressure within pleural space from pulling air in/tidaling of water

Drainage chamber

Used for collection of air or fluid by gravity or suction

Suction control chamber

Provides suction controlled to provide negative pressure/gently bubbling


Painful inflammation of pleura

Pleural effusion

Fluid accumulation which compresses lung tissue


Effusions become infectious


Most common airway obstruction which bronchiole blocked with secretions/alveoli distal collapse

Pulmonary embolism

Blood clot to lungs which occludes pulmonary blood vessel

Greenfield filter

Used to prevent clots from traveling from lower extremities to heart, lungs, and brain

Pulmonary edema

Rapid fluid shift from plasma to interstitial and alveoli causing impaired gas exchange


Hypoxemia as a result of major assault on multiple body systems or severe trauma


Intermittent airway obstruction in response to stimuli

Chronic bronchitis

Inflammed bronchial tree with excessive mucus leading to chest wall distention, and increased infections


Condition where airways become fibrotic, lose elasticity, and result in narrow lumen leading to barrel chest, hypercapnia, and hypoxia


Chronically dilated bronchi caused by pulmonary TB, chronic URI, or childhood infections due to cystic fibrosis


Integrity of pleura interrupted where air or gas accumulates in pleural space

Closed pneumothorax

No communication between external environment and pleural space such as with broken rib

Open pneumothorax

Direct communication between external environment and pleural space such as with gun shot or knife

Tension pneumothorax

Air enters pleural space on inspriation but unable to exit on expiration caused by mechanical ventilation or central lines


Serosanginous fluid in pleural space


Hemorrhage of nares or nostrils

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