12 terms

Chapter 16 Sapling

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Central Dogma of biology
Transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from DNA. Translation is the process of synthesizing an amino acid sequence from RNA.
Genetic code conclusions
There are three codons that specify the end of translation
Many amino acids are encoded by multiple codons
mRNA description
a linear sequence of ribonucleotides transcribed from DNA that carries instructions for protein production
How many codons could be formed if each codon was two bases long?
16 codons
Why is the genetic code on the mRNA composed of triplet codons instead of doublet codons?
Triplets produce 64 codons, which are enough to provide at least one codon for each of the 20 amino acids.
Universal DNA attribute
Nucleotides A, C, G, T
Code for amino acids
Triplet codes
Which mRNA codon functions as the start codon, directing the ribosome to begin translating the mRNA from the correct end?
AUG
During meiosis, errors can occur during chromosome replication. Which term describes the addition of genetic material to a chromosome through extra replication of a chromosomal section?
Duplication
What is a substitution mutation?
The exchange of one nucleotide for another nucleotide in a DNA molecule
Which type of DNA mutation results in a change in the reading frame of an mRNA?
Deletion of a single nucleotide
Some mutations do not affect the amino acid sequence of the protein produced using the mutated gene. How can the correct amino acid be incorporated into the protein despite a mutation in the gene sequence?
The amino acid specified by the mutated codon may be unchanged by the mutation.
Which of the following are potential effects of a point mutation within a protein coding gene?
An incorrect amino acid is placed in a protein and it affects how the protein functions.
A nucleotide is replaced with another nucleotide but the amino acid sequence remains the same.
A nucleotide is used in place of another and the change results in a stop codon.