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103 terms

Psy. Ch.8 Human development - Study guide

Psy. Ch.8 Human development - terms. study guide
STUDY
PLAY
Which statement reflects Piaget's thinking about the stages of cognitive development?
All people progress through the stages in the same order.
The teenager's personal fable includes all of the following except.
a. a sense of personal uniqueness.
b. a belief that he or she is indestructible and protected from misfortunes.
c. a belief that no one has ever felt so deeply before.
d. a feeling that he or she is always on stage.
d. a feeling that he or she is always on stage.
preconventional
to avoid punishment or gain a reward; to gain approval or follow the law.
postconventional
to ensure that human rights are protected.
According to Erikson, satisfactory resolution of the conflict associated with each stage of his psychosocial stages is required for healthy development in future stages, (true/false)
true
first two weeks of life
period of the zygote
rapid growth and further development of body structures and systems
period of the fetus
formation of major systems, organs, and structures
period of the embryo
Which of the following statements about infant sensory development is not true?
a. Vision, hearing, taste, and smell are all fully developed at birth.
b. Vision, hearing, taste, and smell are all functional at birth.
c. Infants can show preferences in what they want to look at, hear, and smell shortly after birth.
d. Hearing is better developed at birth than vision.
Vision, hearing, taste, and smell are all fully developed at birth.
The primary factor influencing the attainment of the major motor milestones is
maturation.
Which statement best describes Thomas, Chess, and Birch's thinking about temperament?
Temperament is inborn but can be modified by the family and the environment.
Ainsworth found that most infants had secure attachment, (true/false)
True
"ba-ba-ba"
babbling
"He eated the cookies
overregularization
"Mama see ball"
telegraphic speech
"oo," "ah"
cooing
"kitty," meaning a lion
overextension
Learning theory is better able than the nativist position to account for how language development can be encouraged. (true/false)
False
expecting unquestioned obedience
authoritarian
setting high standards, giving rationale for rules
authoritative
setting few rules or limits
permissive
The peer group usually has a negative influence on social development. (true/false)
false
Which theory of gender role development does not require that children understand the concept of gender?
social learning theory
The period of emerging adulthood begins at puberty. (true/false)
False
The secondary sex characteristics
are not directly involved in reproduction.
Most teenagers have good relationships with their parents. (true/false).
True
During which decade do people reach their peak physically?
20s
(Crystallized/Fluid) intelligence increases with age.
Crystalized
Which of the following statements is true of adults older than age 65?
Most retirees are happy to be retired.
Compared to older adults who are mentally and physically active, younger adults do better on
tests requiring speed.
Which of the following is not a component of successful aging?
high income
According to Kubler-Ross, the first stage experienced by terminally ill patients in coming to terms with death is ________; the last stage
is ________.
denial; acceptance
Piaget
Cognitive development
Erikson
Psychosocial development
Thomas, Chess, and Birch
Temperament
Ainsworth
attachment
Chomsky
nativist view of language development
Kohlberg
moral reasoning, gender role development
Kubler-Ross
death and dying
Bern
gender - schema theory
Piaget's term for an individual's action plans is a _______.
scheme
According to the concept of the _______ _____ , adolescents may take risks such as driving fast, smoking cigarettes, or having unprotected sex because they believe they are indestructible.
personal fable
Tamara believes that pleasing others defines a good person. She is at the_________ level of moral development.
conventional
Charles is at a point in his life when he is wrestling with a sense of who he is and where he will go from here. He would be considered to be in Erikson's _________ vs ________ psychosocial development.
identity versus, role confusion
The period of the ________ is the first stage of prenatal development.
zygote
Substances in the prenatal environment that may cause birth defects are called ________.
teratogens
The pediatrician said that Sandra began to crawl when she did because she had achieved a sufficient degree of __________ her genetically
programmed biological timetable of development.
maturation
The chapter identified four different patterns of attachment. Ainsworth would say that a child who does not seem to be responsive to his or her
mother and does not seem to be troubled when she is gone demonstrates _________ attachment.
avoidant
Watching one of the family dogs sleeping on the couch right next to her, 2-year-old Peg says, "Doggie sleep." This is an example of _________.
over extension
One day, her mother asked Peg where the dog was. Peg responded, "Doggie goed outside." This is an example of _________.
over regularization
According to ________ children label themselves as boys or girls before they understand that all boys grow up to be men and all girls grow up to be women.
kohlberg
__________ intelligence is to verbal ability as _______ intelligence is to abstract reasoning.
crystallized, fluid
__________ is the third stage of grieving, according to Kubler - Ross's theory.
Bargaining
The period of time from conception to birth is called the period of ________ development.
prenatal
The second stage of prenatal development is known as the period of
the embryo.
Researchers have found that resolution of Erikson's stage of intimacy versus isolation typically occurs in adulthood rather than in adolescence. One reason for this finding is that identity development is correlated with
finding a life partner.
A baby is considered preterm if she or he is born
before the 37th week of pregnancy.
Jorge is just a few days old. He can see, but not as well as he will later. If he is a typical baby, he probably has _______ vision.
20/600
Maturation is
genetically determined biological changes that follow a timetable of development.
Cindy says that her new baby's responses to things that happen in the environment are generally happy and positive. Cindy is talking about her baby's
temperament.
Assimilation is a process used with __________.
existing schemes.
The nativist position on speech development is that language ability is basically innate.(true/false)
true
Which of the following is not an example of a secondary sex characteristic?
a. development of breasts in females
b. differentiation of internal reproductive organs
c.. deepening of the voice in males
d. rounding of the hips in females
b. differentiation of internal reproductive organs
Piaget's final stage of cognitive development is known as the ________ stage.
formal operations
A child in Kohlberg's _________ level of moral reasoning is governed by the physical consequences of behavior rather than by internalized ideas of right and wrong.
preconventional
A person must be at Piaget's stage of formal operations to attain Kohlberg's ________ level of moral reasoning.
postconventional
Evidence suggests that females tend to stress care and compassion in resolving moral dilemmas, whereas males tend to stress _________. (or to give it and caring equal weight).
justice
The children of teenage mothers tend to display academic and/or behavioral difficulties. (true/false)
True
The most obvious changes as an individual gets older are usually
physical
Holland's approach to career development focuses on
personality traits
The results of current research seem to indicate that older adults are ________ younger adults.
as satisfied with life as
For the majority of those who stop working, retirement is not as stressful as popularly believed. (true/false)
true
For most people, which of the following is the most stressful event faced in their lifetime?
losing a spouse
The idea that development occurs in distinctive phases that are easily distinguishable from each other is the central premise of
stage theories. Page: 240
Wendy is 18 months old and just learning to speak. She meows whenever she sees a cat. One day, while she is watching television, a rabbit appears, and Wendy points and meows. What process has Wendy attempted regarding her existing scheme of cats?
assimilation Page: 241
Sanford enjoys playing hide-and-seek with his mother. Sanford can play this game only because he has achieved what Piaget would call
object permanence. Page: 241
Piaget's cognitive stages in chronological order are
sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations. Pages: 241-243
During which of Piaget's stages are children able to understand abstract concepts such as "freedom"?
formal operations Page: 242
Luis behaves well at school because he wants to please his teacher. Which of Kohlberg's levels of moral development best fits Luis?
conventional Page: 247
According the Erikson, adolescence is known as the period of
identity versus role confusion. Page: 250
Ginny is 82 years old. She often looks back on her life with satisfaction, believing that she accomplished a lot, had a loving family, and contributed to the world. Which of Erikson's stages best fits Ginny?
ego integrity versus despair. Page: 250
The developing human organism as it develops from the ninth week until birth is called a(n)
fetus. Page: 252
Because of the risk of fetal alcohol syndrome, pregnant women are advised to
completely abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Page: 253
Harmful agents in the environment that can have a negative effect on prenatal development are called
teratogens. Page: 253
Brandi is 2 months old. She is generally happy most of the time, enjoys meeting new people, and has a regular routine to her day. Which temperament best describes her?
easy Page: 256
Shawn is 18 months old. Lately, whenever his mother leaves him with his grandmother, he cries as if he is afraid. Their pediatrician said not to worry because ________________ is common among children his age.
separation anxiety Page: 257
"Want cookie!" could be an example of
telegraphic speech. Page: 259
Barry tells his father that he and his mother "goed to the store." This error is an example of
overregularization. Page: 259
Which parenting style generally appears to be the most effective in the United States?
authoritative. Page: 261
Cassandra is a teenager who hates school. She has developed a plan to have a perfect life that involves quitting school with her boyfriend and getting rich and famous by being on American Idol. Cassandra's plan would best be described by which term?
a personal fable. Pages: 242-243
The most common symptom of menopause is
hot flashes. Pages: 266-267
The only intellectual ability to show a continuous decline from about the mid-twenties to 80 is
perceptual speed. Page: 267
John has just learned that he has a terminal illness. According to Kübler-Ross, which reaction is he likely to experience first?
denial. Pages: 273-274
True/False: Developmental psychology as it is studied today focuses on childhood and adolescence as times of change and adulthood as a time of stagnation.
False. Page: 240
True/False: According to Piaget, a 3-year-old child would assume that you can see what she sees.
True. Page: 242
True/False: Vygotsky's sociocultural approach to cognitive development puts more emphasis on the impact of language development than does Piaget's theory.
True. Page: 246
True/False: Newborns can recognize some stimuli to which they were exposed prior to birth.
True. Pages: 252-253
True/False: One conclusion drawn from the visual cliff experiment was that babies have no perception of depth until they learn to walk.
False. Page: 255
True/False:Securely attached infants tend to develop more advanced social skills when they are preschoolers than their peers who were not securely attached.
True. Page: 257
True/False: The nativist position suggests that language development occurs primarily through operant conditioning.
False. Page: 260
True/False:Gender roles occur through the sole influence of biological factors.
False. Page: 262
True/False:Fluid intelligence peaks in one's twenties, but crystallized intelligence increases throughout the lifespan.
True. Page: 267
True/False: Kübler-Ross's stages of death and dying appear to be universal.
False. Page: 274