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Psy. Ch.8 Human development - terms. study guide

Which statement reflects Piaget's thinking about the stages of cognitive development?

All people progress through the stages in the same order.

The teenager's personal fable includes all of the following except.
a. a sense of personal uniqueness.
b. a belief that he or she is indestructible and protected from misfortunes.
c. a belief that no one has ever felt so deeply before.
d. a feeling that he or she is always on stage.

d. a feeling that he or she is always on stage.


to avoid punishment or gain a reward; to gain approval or follow the law.


to ensure that human rights are protected.

According to Erikson, satisfactory resolution of the conflict associated with each stage of his psychosocial stages is required for healthy development in future stages, (true/false)


first two weeks of life

period of the zygote

rapid growth and further development of body structures and systems

period of the fetus

formation of major systems, organs, and structures

period of the embryo

Which of the following statements about infant sensory development is not true?
a. Vision, hearing, taste, and smell are all fully developed at birth.
b. Vision, hearing, taste, and smell are all functional at birth.
c. Infants can show preferences in what they want to look at, hear, and smell shortly after birth.
d. Hearing is better developed at birth than vision.

Vision, hearing, taste, and smell are all fully developed at birth.

The primary factor influencing the attainment of the major motor milestones is


Which statement best describes Thomas, Chess, and Birch's thinking about temperament?

Temperament is inborn but can be modified by the family and the environment.

Ainsworth found that most infants had secure attachment, (true/false)




"He eated the cookies


"Mama see ball"

telegraphic speech

"oo," "ah"


"kitty," meaning a lion


Learning theory is better able than the nativist position to account for how language development can be encouraged. (true/false)


expecting unquestioned obedience


setting high standards, giving rationale for rules


setting few rules or limits


The peer group usually has a negative influence on social development. (true/false)


Which theory of gender role development does not require that children understand the concept of gender?

social learning theory

The period of emerging adulthood begins at puberty. (true/false)


The secondary sex characteristics

are not directly involved in reproduction.

Most teenagers have good relationships with their parents. (true/false).


During which decade do people reach their peak physically?


(Crystallized/Fluid) intelligence increases with age.


Which of the following statements is true of adults older than age 65?

Most retirees are happy to be retired.

Compared to older adults who are mentally and physically active, younger adults do better on

tests requiring speed.

Which of the following is not a component of successful aging?

high income

According to Kubler-Ross, the first stage experienced by terminally ill patients in coming to terms with death is ________; the last stage
is ________.

denial; acceptance


Cognitive development


Psychosocial development

Thomas, Chess, and Birch





nativist view of language development


moral reasoning, gender role development


death and dying


gender - schema theory

Piaget's term for an individual's action plans is a _______.


According to the concept of the _______ _____ , adolescents may take risks such as driving fast, smoking cigarettes, or having unprotected sex because they believe they are indestructible.

personal fable

Tamara believes that pleasing others defines a good person. She is at the_________ level of moral development.


Charles is at a point in his life when he is wrestling with a sense of who he is and where he will go from here. He would be considered to be in Erikson's _________ vs ________ psychosocial development.

identity versus, role confusion

The period of the ________ is the first stage of prenatal development.


Substances in the prenatal environment that may cause birth defects are called ________.


The pediatrician said that Sandra began to crawl when she did because she had achieved a sufficient degree of __________ her genetically
programmed biological timetable of development.


The chapter identified four different patterns of attachment. Ainsworth would say that a child who does not seem to be responsive to his or her
mother and does not seem to be troubled when she is gone demonstrates _________ attachment.


Watching one of the family dogs sleeping on the couch right next to her, 2-year-old Peg says, "Doggie sleep." This is an example of _________.

over extension

One day, her mother asked Peg where the dog was. Peg responded, "Doggie goed outside." This is an example of _________.

over regularization

According to ________ children label themselves as boys or girls before they understand that all boys grow up to be men and all girls grow up to be women.


__________ intelligence is to verbal ability as _______ intelligence is to abstract reasoning.

crystallized, fluid

__________ is the third stage of grieving, according to Kubler - Ross's theory.


The period of time from conception to birth is called the period of ________ development.


The second stage of prenatal development is known as the period of

the embryo.

Researchers have found that resolution of Erikson's stage of intimacy versus isolation typically occurs in adulthood rather than in adolescence. One reason for this finding is that identity development is correlated with

finding a life partner.

A baby is considered preterm if she or he is born

before the 37th week of pregnancy.

Jorge is just a few days old. He can see, but not as well as he will later. If he is a typical baby, he probably has _______ vision.


Maturation is

genetically determined biological changes that follow a timetable of development.

Cindy says that her new baby's responses to things that happen in the environment are generally happy and positive. Cindy is talking about her baby's


Assimilation is a process used with __________.

existing schemes.

The nativist position on speech development is that language ability is basically innate.(true/false)


Which of the following is not an example of a secondary sex characteristic?
a. development of breasts in females
b. differentiation of internal reproductive organs
c.. deepening of the voice in males
d. rounding of the hips in females

b. differentiation of internal reproductive organs

Piaget's final stage of cognitive development is known as the ________ stage.

formal operations

A child in Kohlberg's _________ level of moral reasoning is governed by the physical consequences of behavior rather than by internalized ideas of right and wrong.


A person must be at Piaget's stage of formal operations to attain Kohlberg's ________ level of moral reasoning.


Evidence suggests that females tend to stress care and compassion in resolving moral dilemmas, whereas males tend to stress _________. (or to give it and caring equal weight).


The children of teenage mothers tend to display academic and/or behavioral difficulties. (true/false)


The most obvious changes as an individual gets older are usually


Holland's approach to career development focuses on

personality traits

The results of current research seem to indicate that older adults are ________ younger adults.

as satisfied with life as

For the majority of those who stop working, retirement is not as stressful as popularly believed. (true/false)


For most people, which of the following is the most stressful event faced in their lifetime?

losing a spouse

The idea that development occurs in distinctive phases that are easily distinguishable from each other is the central premise of

stage theories. Page: 240

Wendy is 18 months old and just learning to speak. She meows whenever she sees a cat. One day, while she is watching television, a rabbit appears, and Wendy points and meows. What process has Wendy attempted regarding her existing scheme of cats?

assimilation Page: 241

Sanford enjoys playing hide-and-seek with his mother. Sanford can play this game only because he has achieved what Piaget would call

object permanence. Page: 241

Piaget's cognitive stages in chronological order are

sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations. Pages: 241-243

During which of Piaget's stages are children able to understand abstract concepts such as "freedom"?

formal operations Page: 242

Luis behaves well at school because he wants to please his teacher. Which of Kohlberg's levels of moral development best fits Luis?

conventional Page: 247

According the Erikson, adolescence is known as the period of

identity versus role confusion. Page: 250

Ginny is 82 years old. She often looks back on her life with satisfaction, believing that she accomplished a lot, had a loving family, and contributed to the world. Which of Erikson's stages best fits Ginny?

ego integrity versus despair. Page: 250

The developing human organism as it develops from the ninth week until birth is called a(n)

fetus. Page: 252

Because of the risk of fetal alcohol syndrome, pregnant women are advised to

completely abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Page: 253

Harmful agents in the environment that can have a negative effect on prenatal development are called

teratogens. Page: 253

Brandi is 2 months old. She is generally happy most of the time, enjoys meeting new people, and has a regular routine to her day. Which temperament best describes her?

easy Page: 256

Shawn is 18 months old. Lately, whenever his mother leaves him with his grandmother, he cries as if he is afraid. Their pediatrician said not to worry because ________________ is common among children his age.

separation anxiety Page: 257

"Want cookie!" could be an example of

telegraphic speech. Page: 259

Barry tells his father that he and his mother "goed to the store." This error is an example of

overregularization. Page: 259

Which parenting style generally appears to be the most effective in the United States?

authoritative. Page: 261

Cassandra is a teenager who hates school. She has developed a plan to have a perfect life that involves quitting school with her boyfriend and getting rich and famous by being on American Idol. Cassandra's plan would best be described by which term?

a personal fable. Pages: 242-243

The most common symptom of menopause is

hot flashes. Pages: 266-267

The only intellectual ability to show a continuous decline from about the mid-twenties to 80 is

perceptual speed. Page: 267

John has just learned that he has a terminal illness. According to Kübler-Ross, which reaction is he likely to experience first?

denial. Pages: 273-274

True/False: Developmental psychology as it is studied today focuses on childhood and adolescence as times of change and adulthood as a time of stagnation.

False. Page: 240

True/False: According to Piaget, a 3-year-old child would assume that you can see what she sees.

True. Page: 242

True/False: Vygotsky's sociocultural approach to cognitive development puts more emphasis on the impact of language development than does Piaget's theory.

True. Page: 246

True/False: Newborns can recognize some stimuli to which they were exposed prior to birth.

True. Pages: 252-253

True/False: One conclusion drawn from the visual cliff experiment was that babies have no perception of depth until they learn to walk.

False. Page: 255

True/False:Securely attached infants tend to develop more advanced social skills when they are preschoolers than their peers who were not securely attached.

True. Page: 257

True/False: The nativist position suggests that language development occurs primarily through operant conditioning.

False. Page: 260

True/False:Gender roles occur through the sole influence of biological factors.

False. Page: 262

True/False:Fluid intelligence peaks in one's twenties, but crystallized intelligence increases throughout the lifespan.

True. Page: 267

True/False: Kübler-Ross's stages of death and dying appear to be universal.

False. Page: 274

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