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CIS Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
The Term digital technology refers to the manipulation and storage of information in the form of
Zeroes and ones
Another name for data is
input
a supercomputer is an example of a ______ computer
server
another name for zeroes and ones is
binary digits (bits)
a billion characters is equal to one ______ of storage
gigabyte
A process called ______ is used to digitize sound, such as music.
Sampling
The binary system used to digitally represent keyboard characters is:
ASCII
An ATM machine is an example of a(n):
special-purpose computer
The process of keeping everything up to date across all your computing platforms is called:
synchronization
What is computer literacy?
a functional understanding of the fundamentals of computers and their uses.
What is digital literacy?
an understanding of how computers represent different types of data with digits.
What is the process of transforming information, such as text, images, and sounds, into digital representation (1s and 0s) so that it can be stored and processed by computers?
digitization
that process of combining the functionality of several digital electronics devices into one:
digital convergence
a computing platform:
describes a computer's architecture in terms of hardware and software
The hexadecimal system:
has base 16 for colors
A powerful computer that often utilizes many processors to provide services to many users simultaneously over a network:
server
The most powerful type of computer, often utilizing thousands or even tens of thousands of processors to solve the world's most difficult problems:
supercomputer
Carries out the instructions provided by software using specially designed circuitry and a well-defined routine to transform data into useful outputs:
processing
A transistor is:
an electronics component typically composed of silicon that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.
Connects tiny transistors and other electronics components on a thin piece of semiconductive material such as silicon, launched a technological revolution by making it possible to mass-produce thousands of transistors in one wafer-thin package:
Integrated circuit/ processor
A group of circuits that perform the processing in a computer, typically in one integrated circuit called a microprocessor.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Moore's Law states that:
that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years.
parallel processing refers to:
systems that divide processing equally among multiple CPUs.
Massive parallel processing:
utilize hundreds or thousands of CPUs working together to serve either many users or a few users processing large data sets.
The primary circuit of a computer to which all core components are connected including the CPU is called the:
Motherboard
The bus is a:
Subsystem on the motherboard that transfers data among system components.
The machine cycle is used as an:
Orderly method of processing software instructions.
RAM is:
Temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.
ROM:
Provides permanent storage for data and instructions that do not change, programs and data from the computer manufacturer, including the boot process used to start the computer.
An external hard-drive is an example of:
Magnetic storage
CD's and DVD' s are examples of:
optical storage
A thumb drive is an example of:
solid state storage
To avoid date entry errors, many systems rely on:
source data automation
What is not considered to be both an input and output device:
Speakers
The most popular general purpose input devices are:
keyboards
The kind of display used by Apple's iphone and ipad is an example of:
multi-touch display
______ is used almost exclusively by the banking industry:
MICR
A game controller is a type of:
special purpose input device
A self-checkout machine at Home Depot or the grocery store is a type of:
POS terminal
Expanding through the capacity of a computer to interface with a variety of peripherals can be done by connecting through a:
USB port
One component of high-end video cards today is a:
GPU
The quality of a display unit is measured in terms of its:
pixels
A utility program, such as a screen saver, is a type of:
systems software
When you use a remote business desktop (RBUS) from home, your computer becomes a ____ of the FCB network.
client
Is system software is installed on a smart phone, it is considered to be:
embedded
Another name for starting your computer is:
booting
Requiring users to enter a username and password is part of which OS function?
Administering Security
When computer users engage in file management, the OS lets them:
Copy, delete, rename, or move files and folders.
When the computer is on, where does the operating system exist?
In both RAM (primary storage) and secondary storage
Two or more processors running at the same time is called:
Multiprocessing
The type of utility program that tells the OS how peripheral devices are to communicate with them is called a:
Device driver
When the OS is busy swapping items between memory and storage and can't execute programs, it is said to be:
Thrashing
The process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming languages.
computer programming
an application programming interface:
is a set of programming tools provided to access an operating system or online service in order to create software based on that operating system or online service.
The three main components of AI systems are:
-A set of logical rules to apply to input to produce useful output
-Instructions for how to handle unexpected input and still produce useful output - i.e., the ability to "wing it"
-The ability to learn from experience, referred to as machine learning
Conventional AI uses programming that:
emphasizes statistical analysis to calculate the probability of various outcomes in order to find the best solution.
An expert system (ES):
is a form of conventional AI that is programmed to function like a human expert in a particular field or area.
A branch of AI that uses methodologies such as neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation to enable computers to learn from experience in an iterative (cyclical) process.
Computational Intelligence
the point in time at which computers exceed humans in intelligence:
singularity
Robotics involves:
developing mechanical or computer devices to perform tasks that require a high degree of precision, or are tedious or hazardous for humans.
What enables software to react to visual input?
Computer vision
What consists of programs and a knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process, or another program.
An intelligent agent (Bot)