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annual, biannual, perennial
herbs only!
leaves: ex-stipulate (no bracts), alternate
flowers: cruciform, actinomorphic
Ca: 4
stamen: 4-6 long, 2 short
fruit: silique, silicle


herbs or shrubs, usually w/ **rough hairs
leaves: opp or alt, **simple
inflorescence: scorpiod cyme
Ca:5 free or connate
Co: 5 connate, bell shaped
stamen: 5
ovary divided into **4 nutlets with gynobasic style (see picture)


Herbs, sometimes with glandular hairs
-scorpiod cyme
apical style with forks (not gynobasic like borage)
compound leaves


2 deciduous Calyx that pops off before flower develops
-lots of stamen
fused gynecium, adnate
capsule: apical pores


annuals, biannuals, perennial
leave: alt, simple, often palmately lobed
lots of stamen
connate into tube *(monodelphous= sideways stamen and stamen that are facing up)
*fruits: schizocarp or loculicidal capsule

example: hibiscus


Co: fused, 5**
leaves: **alternate
sometimes has poreacidal anthers
axial plastination
fruit: berry, fleshy, lots of seeds


Annual, Perennial
herbs, shrubs, trees
leaves: simple, entire, *usually opp, exstipulate
Inflorescence: Sometimes subtended by foliaceous or petaloid **involucre
Ca: petal-like, often connate with 5 lobes
stamen: 5
furit: achene or nut, *anthocarp

Brassicaceae Sisymbrium irio

"london rocket"

more yellow flowers
less stout beak on fruit

Hydrophyllaceae Phacelia sp.

sticky from glandular trichomes, forked pistil

Papaveraceae Eschscholzia sp.

parsely-like leaves, basal seeming
desert poppy

Boraginaceae Amsinckia sp.

Brassicaceae Brassica sp.

Malvaceae Abutilon sp.

heart shaped ridged margined leaf
multiple capsules in a ring not a schizocarp like the cheese weed

Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris

shepard's purse

Malvaceae Malva parviflora

Solanaceae Lycium fremontii

Oxalidaceae Oxalis sp.


Simmondsiaceae Simmondsia chinensis


Fabaceae Caesalpinioideae Senna (K&P=Cassia)

Fabaceae Mimosoideae Acacia sp.

Fabaceae Papilionoideae Medicago sp.

palmately compound leaves
flowers: small and yellow
fruit: a spiral like coil bur, marginal prickers, non-segmented, multi-seeded

Rubiaceae Galium stellatum

leaves: appearing to be whorled
stamen: 4
Co: 4
inferior ovary
all gallium have whorled leaves in 4's


shrubs & trees
2x pinnate
valvate: not overlapping when budding
10+ stamen


Like the orchid tree
shrubs, trees
1-2 pinnate
imbricate: overlapping flower petals, off petal tucked in (inner most)
weakly zygo
5-10 stamen


herbs -> trees
usually 1x compound (pinnate, palmate, trifoliate)

**imbricate: overlapping, odd petal covering others

10 stamen sometimes, fused at the base (9+1 *diadelphous)

banner: 1
wings- 2
keel- 2 fused petals

Phoradendron californicum


annual & perennial herbs
leaves: palmate or pinnately lobed or divided
flowers: solitary flowers
Co: 5
Ca: 5
Stamen: 10, in two whorls


trees, shrubs, vines
leaves: mostly pinnately compound, simple
flowers: zygomorphic, large, showy
Ca: 5 synsepalous (united sepals?)
Co: 5 " "
fruit: 2 valued septicidal or loculicidal capsule


no petals
5 tepals

scarious bracts, achene (dry indehiscent opening seeds)

**farinose (white dust), mealy
green, leafy bracts
utricle (achene surrounded by pericarp tissue)

Polemoniaceae Gilia sp.

flower: *funnel form
Ca: united by membrane
pistil: lobed styles, 3

Poaceae schismus

Poaceae Muhlenbergia

Poaceae Cynodon dactylon

Poaceae Avena fatua

Poaceae Pennisetum ciliare


leaves: simple,
flowers: actinomorphic
Ca: 5 connate, with windows*
Co: 5 connate
stamen: 5, 3 stigmatic lobes

Papilionoideae Lupinus sparsiflorus

leaves: palmate compound
flower: purple, white, and yellow
anthers: strongly differentiated


herbs & shrubs
leaves: pop with stipules
flowers: actinomorphic
Ca: 4-5
Co: 4-5
Inferior ovary

Boraginaceae Pectocarya recurvata

distinct fruit type
simple leaves
bristle flowers

Ncytaginaceae Mirabilis laevis

Amaranthaceae/ Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodium murale

green tepals, no bracts

Atriplex canescens

big bracts, 4 winged salt bush

Geraniaceae Erodium cicutarium

fruit twists when heated.

Bignoniaceae Tecoma stans

Solanaceae Nicotiana obtusifolia

large white flowers
fruit: green berries
sticky plant

Acanthaceae Justicia californica

Fabaceae Sophora sp.

diadelphous stamen

10 stamen sometimes, fused at the base (9+1 *diadelphous)

characteristic of Papilionoideae


a segment of perianth which is not differentiated into calyx and corolla: a sepal or petal

Apical Style

hydrophyllaceae has this

Gynobasic Style

on Boraginaceae

Monodelphous stamen

stamens united by the filaments and forming a tube around the gynoecium

Fabaceae Medicago spp.

spiral-like fruits, papilionoideae yellow flower, looks like a clover

Rosaceae Maloideae Malus

Rosaceae Prunoideae Prunus


Rosaceae Rosoideae Fragaria


Cucurbitaceae Marah gilensis

star-like, white-yellow flower
tendrils present

Portulacaceae Claytonia perfoliata


Polemoniaceae Phlox tenuifolia

little windows in the calyx

Fabaceae Lotus rigidus


Juncaceae Juncus articulatus

*round stems (vs triangular with the sedges)
*open leaf sheathing
loculicidal capsule

Cyperaceae Carex sp.

achene in perigynium casing

Cyperaceae Eleocharis sp.

terminal spikelet
achene with bristles surrounding it

Cyperaceae Schoenoplectus sp.

no tubercle

Cyperaceae Cyperus sp.

laterally flat stem (like a fish)
leaves grow at the base of the inflorescence

Typhaceae Typha sp.

flowers: monecious

males above females, just like in gymnosperms
double spadix

Lilliaceae Nothoscordum

bulbous herbs
lack onion odor
raceme or umble

Salicaceae Populus fremontii

white trunk

Salicaceae Salix gooddingii

lvs: simple
catkin infl
riparian area plant

Agavaceae Agave sp.

inferior ovaries
sometimes with marginal spines (ex. Americana)

Agavaceae Yucca sp.

superior ovaries
no marginal spines
fibrous leaves

Agavaceae Hesperaloe parviflora


Plantaginaceae Penstemon eatoni

opp leave
stamenode (sterile stamen)

Plantaginaceae Plantago patagonica

fuzz on linear leaves
bracts with white small flowers

Orobanchaceae Castilleja linariifolia


Lamiaceae Hyptis emoryi


Asteraceae Encelia farinosa

brittle bush
forked style
fused anthers
no papus (group of hairs that come off the achene)

Asteraceae Bebbia juncea

papus type: awn (the one with the furry stuff up it)
all disk flowers, no rays
chaff+ (subtends each disk flower comes off of receptacle)

Asteraceae Baileya multiradiata

no papus
greyish and wholly leaves

Asteraceae Erigeron divergens

pappus type: awn (fuzzy one)
no chaff

Asteraceae Ericameria linearifolia

Asteraceae Sonchus oleraceus

all ray flower, no disk


cyathium inflorescence
stem succulent
appendages and glands
milky sap
female flower is a 3 valved capsule

Onagraceae Oenothera sp.

primrose family
inferior ovary w/ LONG hypanthium
Ca: 4 Co: 4
Stamen: 8
*Viscin: the sticky pollen

Polygonaceae Eriogonum fasciculatum

rosemerry-like leaves
woody at base

Apiaceae Torilis nodosa

(dill, carrots, fennel)
umble or 2x umbel
mostly herbs
sheathing leaves
inferior ovary
fruit: schizocarp

Apiaceae Apium leptophyllum


Asclepiadaceae Asclepias tuberosa

(milkweed family)
milky sap
leaves: simple, entire.
bearing appendages form petaloid Corona gynostegium

Euphorbiaceae Chamaesyce albomarginata

leaves entire, opposite

Asclepiadaceae Asclepias subulata


Cactaceae Echinocereus sp.

no glochids
inferior ovary
many stamen
many tepals
round, columnar, short
vertically ribbed

Cactaceae Mammillaria sp.

not ribbed
tubercles (nodes)

Cactaceae Echinocactus sp.

fruits whooly
fat and short

Cactaceae Ferocactus sp.

barrel cactus
ribbed vertically
big thick spines
spineless flowers


closed leaf sheath
three sided stems
inflorescence "sedge spikelets"
each flower subtended by bract
perianth absent or reduced to scales
fruit an achene


perennial, usually bulbous herbs
lack onion odor
infl. a raceme or umbel
6 tepals, 6 stamen, superior ovary
lvs simple, entire


mostly perennial herbs
round stemmed
open leaf sheath
flws bisexual, actinomorphic
6 scarious tepals
3 connate carpels


perennial, tall
semi-aquatic herbs
double spadix
scale like tepals
flws monecious


(Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii) Cottin filled fruits. Or catkins with are pollen.


all herbs
leaf succulents (often edible)
flws actinomorphic
Ca:2, Co: 5
fruit a circumsessile capsule or valvate capsule


annual or perennial herbs and shrubs w/simple alternate lvs
5-6 petaloid tepals
6-9 stamens
ocrea (sheath around stem formed by stipules)
achene w/ 2 lenticular or trigonous carpels

Plantaginaceae(including what was previously in Scrophulariaceae)


Orobanchaceae(many used to be in Scrophulariaceae)

(Broom Rape family) root parasites. Co: 5 connate, 2 lipped. Usually followed by a colorfun bract (Castileja linariifolia)


(evening primrose family)
herbs and shrubs
inferior ovary w/ long hypanthium
Ca:4, Co:4, 8 stamen, 4 carpels
viscin: sticky cobwebby pollen


(Mint family) also includes lavender. Aromatic oils and SQUARE stems. 4 nutlets, style gynobasic and 2 lobed near apex. Opposite whorled leaves inclusters. Flowers zygomorhpic. Stames 2 long, 2 short. (Hyptis Emoryi) small purple flower


monecious or diecious
lvs simple, palmately veined or lobed
flws imperfect
Ca: 5 lobes, Co: 5 lobes
stamen often fused
fruit a pepo w/ 3 carpels


stem succulents
shoots reduced to aerioles w/ leaf spines (modified lvs)
perianth many tepals, often showy
numerous stamen
inferior ovary


Milk weed family. Milky sap. Carpels2, distinct at base. Anthers connate and adnate.
Colrolla bearning horn like appendages. Goes from hood to horn, column, calys lobe.
The inside "wings" start with the sorpusculum on top followed by the translator arms and
pollinium (sack like hanging).


mostly herbs
sheathing lvs
infl mostly umbels or umbels of umbels
flws actinomorphic Co: 5
calyx often reduced or absent
petals small, curve in
fruit a schizocarp
lots of edibles (dill, fennel, celery, carrots, cilantro, etc) but also lots of poisonous plants


Grow in salty conditions. 5 petals/5 TEPALS. White dust on surface of leaves (Farinose). Green leafy bracts



petaloid Corona


oblong leaves
sorus in rows
pinnately compound leaves

Equisetaceae (horse tails)

the head is called the Strobilus


resurrection fern
microspore and megaspore


indusium present


no fiddle heads
spores are on stalks not leaves


Cupressaceae Juniperus depiana

alligator juniper
square patterned bark

Pinaceae Pinus ponderosa

2 needles per follicle, flakey bark
pine cone about 10 cm long

Pinaceae Pinus edulis

piñon pine (pine nuts)
2 needles per fascicle

Cupressaceae Juniperus monosperma

dry fiberous bark
berries about 1 cm long

Cuppressaceae Cupressus glabra

grows at 4500 ft elevation

Ephedraceae Ephedra

lvs reduced scale'like
photosynthetic stems appearing "jointed"

Pinaceae Picea engelmannii

6 cm

Pinaceae Pinus flexilis


Pinaceae Abies concolor

Pinaceae Pseudotsuga menziesii

mouse butts :] 5-7cm long

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