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Memory Systems Test 1
Terms in this set (40)
The medial temporal lobe is responsible for what?
Formation of new, long-term, explicit memories
Patient HM had damage in what part of the brain?
medial temporal lobe
The CA1 field sends afferents to what two areas?
entorhinal cortex and subiculum
What is CA1 responsible for?
memories of events and places
The rhinal cortex (both) are responsible for these two things.
object recognition and olfactory functions
What two areas receive efferents from the hippocampus and thus are implicated in diseases involving memory loss?
Mediodorsal thalamus and basal nucleus
What two paths in the hippocampal formation involve acetylcholine?
septum to hippocampus and basal nucleus to widespread projections in neocortex
The limbic cortex receives efferents from where? What is the limbic neocortex responsible for?
from the mediodorsal thalamus; emotion/drive/motivation
What is on either side of the central sulcus?
motor strip and sensory strip
What two areas project to the hippocampus
caudate and putaman
What is the cortico step of each loop?
motor, M1 (premotor), sensory cortex
This area is the primary cortical area in the limbic loop, but these two areas are also part of the cortico area in the limbic circuit
medial prefrontal is primary, anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex
Striato step of each loop
dorsolateral striatum (dorsolateral caudate);
ventral striatium (accumbens)
Dopamine is sent from the substantia nigra to this area, which is the __ step of the __ loop in the basal ganglia
dorsal striatum; striato; motor
The pallido step of each loop is very similar... what is it in each
motor-lateral pallidum (GPi and GPe)
executive- medial pallidum (GPi and GPe)
limbic- ventral pallidum
the ventral striatum is the __ step of the __ loop with afferents from the ____,____ and ____
striato; limbic; hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex
This input structure in the limbic loop receives DA from the _____
The striatum is the major input structure, and in the limbic loop it's the ventral striatum aka nucleus accumbens, which recieves afferents from the ventral tegmental area
Dopamine has a part in two loops in the basal ganglia; which loop, which step receives afferents and from where?
Motor and limbic; striato step- dorsal striatum receives dopamine from the substantia nigra; ventral striatum aka nucleus accumbers receives afferents from ventral tegmental area
Dorsal sends to dorsal, ventral to ventral from the input to output structure in these two loops
dorsal striatum to dorsal pallidum; ventral striatum to ventral pallidum
lateral means ___ medial ____ dorsal ____ ventral___
away from midline; towards midline; top/back; bottom/belly
The cortical structure in the executive loop is the ____ and is responsible for (specifically) ___, ____ and ____
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; directing attention, filtering out irrelevant information and mental representations
The thalamic step of each loop is what?
ventral lateral thalamus
ventral anterior thalamus, and a little mediodorsal thalamus
The 5CSRTT originally measured ___ but was developed to measure attention by__; how does it involve cognition?
reaction time; flashing light very briefly; if light is flashed on the right side, must distinguish between two lights on the right (precision)
Howard Eichenbaum's second "c" had to do with one of William Blake's hypotheses, which was opposite what Pavlov argued.
The second c is cognition, or the importance of "conscious recollection" (Blake) aka insight, which is opposite what Pavlov argued from his dog salivation experiment, which was that conditioning explains behaviors, which are really just reflexes (conditioned reflex)
What four structures are part of Eichenbaum's third "c"? What metaphor highlights the importance of remembering the role of the first "c" when thinking about this one?
The fourth "c" is compartmentalization- hippocampus, amygdala, cortex, striatum. Aliens looking down on us/the BU parking structure illustrates the importance of remembering connection/how these are related/communicate instead of seeing them as independent structures
Ebbinghaus had the opposite theory from James which was ____
Ebbinghaus said order that something is learned is important for recall therefore when more happens it's harder to remember; also said practice is important vs. James who said number of connections made is important to recall
James would say you should study for a test by ___ and Ebbinghaus would say study by ___
Making many associations; practicing/repeating
behavior is functional expression of mental processes- goal is to propagate species (adaptive)- James
Sociobiologists would agree with this theory of James'
Functionalism- behavior as expression of mental processes with goal to propagate species (adaptive)
The orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex are important for....
Emotional/social behaviors; links between emotion and cognition, both for self and others
What area is responsible for monitoring one's own behavior to stay consistent with intentions?
Posterior medial prefrontal (limbic)
What area is responsible for monitoring own behavior as well as considering the intentions/feelings of others?
Anterior medial prefrontal (limbic)
What area is associated with monitoring possible positive and negative outcomes when deciding on a course of action?
If you frequently make errors in reward prediction, what may be damaged?
Dopamine in the pathway from the ventral tagmental area to Ventral striatum.
Aristotle basic concepts
memory vs. reminiscence aka recollection vs. familiarity
Maine de Biran
habit; representative memory, mechanical memory and sensitive memory
The reflex arc
Charles Sherrington- if brain was all one mass, lesions should produce uniform pattern of degeneration- don't- follow paths
Law of effect
basis of behaviorism- Thorndike- behavior changes based on consequences (stimulus-response)- first time cats press lever=chance, then learn via stim-response
How can we begin to understand the compartments as connected processes?
Afferents/efferents; neural circuitry of striatum and hippo
What aspect of Packard and Mcgaugh's experiment would Restac take issue with?
The fact that they studied things/compartments of memory (hippo and striatum) without looking at the connectivity between the two- Restac said we should study the process, not parts.
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