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women and crime final exam

Terms in this set (114)

Historically, rape has most commonly been defined as force intercourse committed by an adult male stranger against an adult female.


Throughout history, rape laws were aimed mostly to protect "virginal" daughters. Women and girls were seen as the property of their fathers and husbands.

Rape was used to justify that a "women's place is in the home" which restricted their ability to attend schools of higher education, work and travel.

In the 1800's sexually victimized women were in a double bind if they wished to involve the court system they would loose their credibility as a victim and would have to admit she was no longer a virgin making her undesirable for marriage.

They were considered damaged goods and ruined.

Not until the 1970's do we begin to see a shift in the definition of rape - to include other serious forms of abuse.

By interviewing African American women we learned about their experienced during slavery - this interracial sex under slavery based on interviewed by the former slaves as exploitative. These women learned to be compliant and silent. This created stereotypes - it is said that this may even have a correlation to the under reported numbers by these groups of women.

1970's sexual victimization was becoming defined and recognized as a social problem but most of the attention was given to adult-stranger rapes.

Continuum of Sexual Victimization = coercion to force.

Force = is a physical method to obtain power e.g. holding down, hitting, or stabbing.

Coercion = is a psychological method to obtain power, e.g. blackmail, abandonment, removal of support, food, finances.
rape by a person who is known to the victim*defintino

Acquaintance rapes are under-reported to the police because they are often more difficult to prove and the victim is more likely to feel some responsibility. They are also more likely to wait longer than victims of stranger-rape to tell anyone or report it.

We also find that children experience an even harder time telling anyone as they are not aware of their rights, feel powerless especially if the rapist is related to them. Younger children cannot tell, cannot talk to express what has happened to them.

Other problems in reporting acquaintance rape:

Having had consensual sexual relations prior to the rape with the alleged rapist.

Fear that their experience would not be defined as rape that they would not be blieved.

Blame themselves and feel they are at fault, disbelief they would go out or date a rapist.

Humiliation and Guilt associated with the experience.

Fear of retaliation.

Rape victims do not always label their victimization as rape but the trauma may still be there.

Strong Denial - not being able to handle the trauma and victimization.




What is clear from the various studies conducted on rape ~ it's a serious social and legal problem it's highly gendered, it's victimization.

Female victims of rape are more likely to be from low income than higher income backgrounds. - we see racial and ethnic differences as well.

Vulnerable risk factors include: young age, prior history of sexual abuse, multiple sex partners, poverty.

It causes long term pain, trauma and social /psychological instability for the victim.

To the victim, rape is a painful violation of the self, the sole and the core of a person.....
There is often Stigma/Stereotype around women who drink, do drugs, wear revealing clothing, who have a reputation of being sexually free may affect her legitimacy to say no and mean it.

Male Peer Support Phenomenon:
Male peer groups on college campuses may objectify women which can be a strong precursor to rape.

High profile sports teams and fraternities have a greater sense of entitlement to rape and abuse girls and women.

Some athletic teams/members may view women and girls as a purely sexual function which shortens the distance between socially irresponsible behavior and criminal sexual assault.Acquaintance rapes are under-reported to the police because they are often more difficult to prove and the victim is more likely to feel some responsibility. They are also more likely to wait longer than victims of stranger-rape to tell anyone or report it.

We also find that children experience an even harder time telling anyone as they are not aware of their rights, feel powerless especially if the rapist is related to them. Younger children cannot tell, cannot talk to express what has happened to them.


Date rape is not a recent phenomenon - in fact it happened often 1700-1800's - men refused to acknowledge women's rights - this often occurred during courtship and were they were forced to marry their rapists because of tradition whereby women should only have sex with one man - her husband.

1980's MS Magazine published findings to their Sexual Experience Survey and found that 70-80% of the women reported that men misinterpreted the degree of sexual intimacy they desired or the man used sexual aggression.

3/4 of college women report have experienced sexual victimization. 1 in 4 has experienced completed or attempted rape since age 14 and 84% were acquaintance rape.
economic not right term
Women described as "victim prone" or "brainwashed" also contributes to victim blaming but this has not been established by research .
The truth is "any women can become a battered women."
Walker (1979) - Learned helplessness is characterized by persons who have learned through repeated failure that they cannot control their destiny they cannot identify a viable alternative to escape.
This theory received some criticism by feminist suggesting a viable escape is not always rational or consciously acknowledged and not necessarily due to a poor-self image or helplessness.
Social learned theory suggests that women may overlook alternatives even when they truly exist due to anxiety or terror. Their behavior may seem logical to others but not them.
Battered women frequently cannot leave due to lack of finances especially when they have children.
Some women lack skills, education or employment to leave IPA relationships.
But, some employed women cannot leave because they are too controlled/forced by their abusers to work and contribute their money to the household budget.
Economic violence - property violence, withholding or not having any money of their own or given a very restrictive allowance to purchase only limited household necessities.
Poor women are the most at-risk when it comes to IPA due to lack of resources, training and opportunities.
Many abusers are possessive and controlling whereby they do not want their spouses to work. Emergency shelter, police and court protection, job training/skills, and employment is necessary in order to gain freedom from their abuser.
sociological
Battered women frequently cannot leave due to lack of finances especially when they have children.
Some women lack skills, education or employment to leave IPA relationships.
But, some employed women cannot leave because they are too controlled/forced by their abusers to work and contribute their money to the household budget.
Economic violence - property violence, withholding or not having any money of their own or given a very restrictive allowance to purchase only limited household necessities.
Poor women are the most at-risk when it comes to IPA due to lack of resources, training and opportunities.
Many abusers are possessive and controlling whereby they do not want their spouses to work. Emergency shelter, police and court protection, job training/skills, and employment is necessary in order to gain freedom from their abuser.
psychological
Women described as "victim prone" or "brainwashed" also contributes to victim blaming but this has not been established by research .
The truth is "any women can become a battered women."
Walker (1979) - Learned helplessness is characterized by persons who have learned through repeated failure that they cannot control their destiny they cannot identify a viable alternative to escape.
This theory received some criticism by feminist suggesting a viable escape is not always rational or consciously acknowledged and not necessarily due to a poor-self image or helplessness.
Social learned theory suggests that women may overlook alternatives even when they truly exist due to anxiety or terror. Their behavior may seem logical to others but not them.
look up
he wage gap is a statistical indicator often used as an index of the status of women's earnings relative to men's. It is also used to compare the earnings of other races and ethnicities to those of white males, a group generally not subject to race- or sex-based discrimination. The wage gap is expressed as a percentage (e.g., in 2013, women earned 78.3% as much as men aged 16 and over) and is calculated by dividing the median annual earnings for women by the median annual earnings for men.

The Equal Pay Act was signed in 1963, making it illegal for employers to pay unequal wages to men and women who hold the same job and do the same work. At the time of the EPA's passage, women earned just 58 cents for every dollar earned by men. By 2013, that rate had increased to 78 cents. Minority women fare the worst. African-American women earn just 64 cents to every dollar earned by white men, and for Hispanic women that figure drops to merely 56 cents per dollar. Asian women are the exception, earning 80 cents for every dollar earned by white men--a sum higher than women of all other races/ethnicities as well as African-American and Hispanic men.

The Institute for Women's Policy Research looked at a 15-year model and found that women's cumulative earnings show a far greater disparity than annual comparisons. Women's lower work hours and their years with zero earnings due to family care certainly are factors affecting the report's findings: women workers in their prime earning years earned 62% less than men, or only $0.38 for every dollar men earned. During that 15-year period, the average woman earned only $273,592 while the average man earned $722,693 (in 1999 dollars).
***As our video explains, the estimated 16-cent pay gap today has narrowed from 36 cents in 1980. ***