How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

30 terms

AP Chemistry Chapter 1

Zumdah; Sixth Edition
STUDY
PLAY
Scientific method
the process of studying natural phenomena, involving observations, forming laws and theories, and testing of theories by experimentation
measurement
a quantitative description that includes both a number and a unit
hypothesis
a proposed explanation for an observation
theory
a set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon
model
theory
natural law
a statement that expresses generally observed behaviour
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created or destroyed
SI system
International System of units based on the metric system and units derived from the metric system
mass
the quantity of matter in an object
weight
the force exerted on an object by gravity
uncertainty
the characteristic that any measurement involves estimates and cannot be exactly reproduced
significant figures
the certain digits and the first uncertain digit of a measurement
accuracy
the agreement of a particular value with the true value
precision
the degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility
random error
an error that has an equal probability of being high or low
systematic error
an error that always occurs in the same direction
matter
the material of the universe
states of matter
the three different states of matter - solid, liquid, gas
homogeneous solution
an equilibrium system where all reactants and products are in the same phase
heterogeneous solution
an equilibrium involving reactants and/or products in more than one phase
solution
a homogeneous mixture
pure substance
a substance with constant composition
physical change
a change in the form of the substance, but not in its chemical composition: chemical bonds are not broken
distillation
a method for separating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on differences in the ease of vaporization of the components
filtration
a method for separating the components of a mixture containing a solid and a liquid
chromatography
the general name for a series of methods for separating mixtures by employing a system with a mobile phase and a stationary phase
paper chromatography
Employs a strip of porous paper such as filter paper as the stationary phase
compound
a substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes
chemical change
the change of substances into other substances through a reorganization of atoms
element
a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means