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Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)

What was the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruling that allowed the formation of labor unions?

Molly Maguires (1860s-1870s)

What was the secretive Irish union of coal miners in Pennsylvania that were willing to use violence against mine owners for their causes?

National Labor Union (1866)

What was the first nation wide union formed in the United States, which included skilled and unskilled workers, but not Chinese and only nominally blacks and women?

Knights of Labor (1869)

What was the large national union open to skilled and unskilled workers as well as women and blacks that maintained secretive rituals, but ultimately collapsed due to poor structure and accusations of anarchism?

Terence Powderly

Who was the Irish-American who led the Knights of Labor for over a decade?

Mary Harris "Mother" Jones

Who was the Irish born woman who was a key organizer of coal miners in the Knights of Labor, the United Mine Workers, and a founder of the IWW?

Cardinal Gibbons

Who was the Catholic bishop who supported American Catholic membership in the Knights of Labor and was a major advocate for workers' reforms?

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

What was the massive late 19th century work stoppage as a result of the Long Depression (Panic of 1873) that was ultimately broken by President Hayes sending in federal troops?

Great Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886

What was the massive work stoppage aganist Jay Gould and the Union Pacific that's failure contributed to the collapse of the Knights of Labor?

Haymarket Square

What was the May Day protest of 1886 against the McCormick Harvesting Company in Chicago that ultimately descended into violence after anarchists attacked police that led to the total collapse of the Knights of Labor?

American Federation of Labor (AFL 1886)

What was the national federation of trade unions that included only skilled workers that sought to negotiate for a better form of capitalism?

Homestead Strike

What was the work stoppage and lockout against Carnegie Steel in 1892 in Pennsylvania that ultimately resulted in a battle between workers and the Pinkerton Detective Agency?

Labor Day

What was the national holiday created in 1894 to recognize the value of American workers?

John P. Altgeld

Who was the progressive Democratic governor of Illinois who in 1893 pardoned those convicted in the Haymarket affair and in 1894 refused to break up the Pullman Strike?

Samuel Gompers

Who was the Jewish leader of the AFL for almost 40 years who was a foe of socialism and imperialism and saw major gains for organized labor?


What is the term for a court order that requires a party or person to cease doing something as in a union striking?

yellow-dog contract or ironclad oath

What is an agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union?

closed shop

What is the term for a trade agreement that insists all workers in a company join a union?

American Railway Union

What was founded in 1893 as trade union for workers on railroads that mushroomed to the largest union of its time until its collapse in 1894?

Eugene Debs

Who was the founder of the American Railway Union and four time candidate for president as a Socialist?

Pullman Strike

What was the name of the work stoppage in Chicago in 1894 against railroads that ended when President Cleveland and Attorney General, Richard Olney dispatched federal troops to end it?

Anthracite (Coal) Strike

What was the 1902 work stoppage that resulted in intervention by President Theodore Roosevelt, who demanded that striking miners' complaints be heard by mine owners?

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) or Wobblies

What was the union founded in 1905 made up of socialists, anarchists, and radical trade unionists from all over the United States who were opposed to the policies of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)?

"Big" Bill Haywood

Who was a founding member of the IWW and the Socialist Party who was involved in several important labor battles, including the Colorado Labor Wars and the Lawrence textile strike and was jailed in 1917 under the Espionage Act?

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn

Who was the labor leader, activist, and feminist in the IWW, the ACLU and chairwoman of the American Communist Party?

Helen Keller

Who was the American author, political activist, and lecturer who was the first deafblind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree and was a member of the Socialist Party of America and IWW?

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire of 1911

What was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, when 146 garment workers perished in a fire or leaped to their deaths?

Lawrence Textile Strike

What was a strike of immigrant workers in Massachusetts in 1912 led by the Industrial Workers of the World sometimes called the "Bread and Roses" strike?

Department of Labor

What Cabinet level government agency was created in 1913 under President Taft to help mediate disputes between workers and owners and regulate work place conditions?

Ludlow Massacre

What was the violent incident of 1914 when the Colorado National Guard opened fire on striking mine workers against Rockefeller owned coal mines and over a dozen women and children were killed?

Joe Hill

Who was a labor activist, songwriter, and member of the "Wobblies" who became a popular song writer and cartoonist for the radical union and was executed in 1915 on trumped up murder charges?

Steel Strike of 1919

What was the post-WWI strike, the greatest in American history, led by the AFL that eventually failed under the pressure of the Red Scare?

American Plan

What was the business oriented program that insisted on the "open shop" during the 1920s?

Battle of Blair Mountain

What was the most violent labor confrontation in history, when in 1921 (following the Matewan Massacre) striking mine workers of West Virginia in the UMW fought against the Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency and the US army?

Great Railroad Strike of 1922

What was a nationwide railroad shop workers strike inthe largest railroad work stoppage since 1894 that was broken up by federal injunction under the encouragement of Attorney General Harry Daugherty?

Loray Mill Strike

What was the strike in 1929 in Gastonia, North Carolina that was unsuccessful in attaining its goals of better working conditions and wages but caused an immense controversy which gave the labor movement momentum, propelling in its national development?

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