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ways that symbols can be arranged to create a new meaning (i.e. This soup makes me well when I am sick vs. This soup makes me sick when I am well.)
Tells us what interpretation of the message is appropriate in a given (relationship) context (i.e. "come here" boss vs. lover)
tells us what interpretation is appropriate in a given (spoken) context (i.e. "fly" that girl is fly vs. I will fly to Dallas next week)
Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMM)
We use rules at several levels to create our own messages and interpret others' statements
Invalid Assumptions About Language
Words have only 1 definition
Words are what they symbolize
Words have specific referents
People and things do not change
Complicated ways on conveying the same thing (i.e.mobile section of petrified matter agglomerates no bryophytes)
Name 7 items that language impacts.
Naming and identity, credibility, status, affiliation, power, sexism, racism
Naming and Identity
• Hypothetical people with common names were given higher grades than unusual names
• Sexism- implying that males/females have superior traits and the opposite sex has inferior traits (policemen vs. police officers)
• Racism- Reflects a worldview that classifies members of one racial group as superior and others as inferior
• Dr. Fox; hired a guy (actor) and used made up words to college students and told him that he was amazing, asked college students what they thought of him- that he was smart because of the words that he used
• My Fair Lady- movie about a street vender who changes her language
• Is associated to attractiveness
• Convergence and divergence
• Convergence, mimicking behavior or language
• Diverge, don't like someone- do the opposite of what they are doing
Speech mannerism can affect its perception; in order to enhance perception people tend not use certain words and word patterns that show a lack of competence
stewardess vs. flight attendant, fireman vs. firefighter, secretary vs. administrative assistant
black market, blacklist, and blackball- negative connotation, while white is viewed positively
more than one definition (i.e. "I want Michael Jackson to come because he has touched so many young people...")
saying something more politely or less bluntly
(i.e. Golden Years- old age, Sub-optimal- fail, Big boned- fat)
mistaken assumption that things are consistent
(Korzybsiki- dating)-Every time you have an assumption about somebody you write it down (i.e. "Maria IS bad"- she might be bad today, but she might be great tomorrow)
effect of canceling the thought that precedes it
"You're a great guy, ___ we need to break up"
3 Parts of "I" Language
1. The persons behavior
2. Your feelings
3. The consequences that the other behavior has for you
Ex: " I get embarrassed (feeling) when you talk about my bad grades in front of our friends (behavior) . I'm afraid they will think I'm stupid (consequence)."
Seems to describe something, but really announces the speaker's attitude towards it ( if you approve, you say: thrifty, traditional, extrovert, cautious; if you don't approve: cheap, old-fashion, coward, loudmouth)
Content (Male vs. Female)
Work, movies/tv, sex, dating, appearance-Same amount (college students)
Females- (college) relationships, family, health, clothing, food, and reproductive matters
Males (college)- sports, hobbies, and activities
Reasons for Communicating (Male vs. Female)
Both use language to maintain and build relationships
Male-Male conversations- like talking to that person
Female-Female- needed, we need each other
Females directed toward nurturing the relationship
Males talk about trying to accomplish a task
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