46 terms

Gothic Art Midterm

central aisle
cross shape; to provide room for pilgrims near altar
radiating/apsidal chapels
individual chapels holding individual relics attached to transept and apse
walkway around apse/altar
area where apse joins transept; where people gather to sing the liturgy
built underneath apse; underground chamber where holiest relics were buried under altar; some were raised above could with raised altar
stone archways; great achievement of romanesque period; wood roof were a problem
barrel vault
simple vaulted roof design; multiple rows of simple arch
transverse arches
transverses span of nave; connect to half columns along piers
individual stones used to build an arch or vault; wedge shaped; arch is self supporting (weight concentrated toward exterior walls)
first voissoirs used (lay against columns themselves)
middle block that holds entire arch together
groin vault/cross vault
intersection at right angles or two barrel vaults of equal size--> allows for light to come in on all sides, transverse separated each groin vault
church that is an archbishop's church; word comes from greek word meaning ruler or king
- longitudinal
- at least 3 aisles (middle higher than side aisles)
second-level windows in middle aisle
canopy above sacred area; square shaped areas supported by 4 columns with some kind of symbolic covering over it
eastern end of the church
notched tower top (like defensive structures)
Saint-Denis Abbey
holds relics of St. Dionysus, originally built 7-8 cent.; rebuilt around 1135-1140
"Old" St. Peter's Basilica
began 326 by Constantine
"New" St. Peter's Basilica
added to old basilica around 15-16 cent.
Beauvais Cathedral
begun in 1225; attempted to be tallest cathedral, but was interrupted by structural complications; only eastern part built (west facade = original)
projecting/free standing support built into or against the exterior wall of the cathedral, providing stability
Chartres Cathedral
12-13 c. (early gothic)
Saint Sernin
Romanesque cathedral in Toulouse, France (South); begun 1070;
gothic architecture
flourished from the 12 through the 16 centuries; proceeded after Romanesque and preceded Renaissance
Romanesque architecture
unsure of beginning date (anywhere from 6-10 c.) but turned into gothic architecture during 12 c.
masonry webbing
the masonry filler between the ribs of a vault
Durham Cathedral
1115-1133 (early gothic) in England; heavy walls, disguised heaviness of columns with use of decoration; not all parts correspond to each other (some end abruptly, etc.) and Gothic arch. tried to fix this in later Gothic
Benedictine Order
Founded by Saint Benedict of Nursia (c.480-547). He founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, about 40 miles east of Rome, before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. Principle Romanesque Church was the Abbey at Cluny, France; primary order through middle ages--controlled large scale pilgrimage churches
Cistercian Order
The term derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098 (reaction against Benedictine order by leaving the corruption and wanting to follow the benedictine rule closer)
Cluniac Order
reforms to Benedictine order; carried out by Odo; reformed corruption within church (esp. simony and concubinage)
Rule of Saint Benedict
written by St. Benedict of Nursia--> guide for monastic living
Rule of Cistercians
wanted to follow St. Benedict's rule more closely--> emphasis on physical labor
a religious or other solemn ceremony or act; A body of customary observances characteristic of a church or a part of it.
the roman rite
becomes essential rite for western church during Romanesque and Gothic times; establishes rites for pope to practice in his chapel/vatican and rites in public churches; mass- liturgy of the readings, thanksgiving, sharing the eucharist- forms base of the Roman Rite
Divine Office
separation of monk's day according to prayer & secular rite--public, everyday parish churches
area of a church building reserved for the clergy
A stone or wooden screen, which separated the choir of the church where the clergy sits from the nave where the congregation sits
manuscript page that has been scraped off and used again
Space or passage above the nave arcade, below the clerestory
lancet window
A narrow window with sharp pointed arches
"sculpture in the round"
a free standing sculpture surrounded on all sides (except base) by space
Bernard of Clairvaux
(1090 - 1153; founder and abbot of Clairvaux monastery and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order.
Abbaye aux Hommes
use of sexpartite vaults; all parts correspond to each other and their piers (begun 1070, vaulting put in 1120)
Saint Denis
first Gothic church; original building 7-8th c.; refurbished by Abbot Suger 1135-1144