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individual chapels holding individual relics attached to transept and apse
built underneath apse; underground chamber where holiest relics were buried under altar; some were raised above could with raised altar
individual stones used to build an arch or vault; wedge shaped; arch is self supporting (weight concentrated toward exterior walls)
groin vault/cross vault
intersection at right angles or two barrel vaults of equal size--> allows for light to come in on all sides, transverse separated each groin vault
church that is an archbishop's church; word comes from greek word meaning ruler or king
- at least 3 aisles (middle higher than side aisles)
canopy above sacred area; square shaped areas supported by 4 columns with some kind of symbolic covering over it
holds relics of St. Dionysus, originally built 7-8 cent.; rebuilt around 1135-1140
begun in 1225; attempted to be tallest cathedral, but was interrupted by structural complications; only eastern part built (west facade = original)
projecting/free standing support built into or against the exterior wall of the cathedral, providing stability
flourished from the 12 through the 16 centuries; proceeded after Romanesque and preceded Renaissance
unsure of beginning date (anywhere from 6-10 c.) but turned into gothic architecture during 12 c.
1115-1133 (early gothic) in England; heavy walls, disguised heaviness of columns with use of decoration; not all parts correspond to each other (some end abruptly, etc.) and Gothic arch. tried to fix this in later Gothic
Founded by Saint Benedict of Nursia (c.480-547). He founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, about 40 miles east of Rome, before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. Principle Romanesque Church was the Abbey at Cluny, France; primary order through middle ages--controlled large scale pilgrimage churches
The term derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098 (reaction against Benedictine order by leaving the corruption and wanting to follow the benedictine rule closer)
reforms to Benedictine order; carried out by Odo; reformed corruption within church (esp. simony and concubinage)
a religious or other solemn ceremony or act; A body of customary observances characteristic of a church or a part of it.
the roman rite
becomes essential rite for western church during Romanesque and Gothic times; establishes rites for pope to practice in his chapel/vatican and rites in public churches; mass- liturgy of the readings, thanksgiving, sharing the eucharist- forms base of the Roman Rite
separation of monk's day according to prayer & secular rite--public, everyday parish churches
A stone or wooden screen, which separated the choir of the church where the clergy sits from the nave where the congregation sits
Bernard of Clairvaux
(1090 - 1153; founder and abbot of Clairvaux monastery and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order.
Abbaye aux Hommes
use of sexpartite vaults; all parts correspond to each other and their piers (begun 1070, vaulting put in 1120)
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